Recently, X-ray pulsar-based navigation (XPNAV) as a significant navigation method has been widely used in deep space exploration. However, the accuracy of XPNAV is limited to the existence of the pulsar direction error. To improve the performance of XPNAV, we have proposed a novel algorithm named “the modified augmented state extended Kalman filter” (MASEKF). The algorithm considers the high-order terms of direction error and then adds a more precise direction error into state equation and measurement equation. In the simulation, by comparing the performance of MASEKF, EKF, and ASEKF at the same time, it is found that MASEKF has better performance in the accuracy and stability, and the results also demonstrate that MASEKF algorithm has faster convergence speed. This paper provides a strong reference for other improvements of algorithms towards direction error. The purpose of this study is to establish MASEKF and add the direction error into the measurement equation and the state equation, so as to realize the coordination and symmetry of the algorithm.
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