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Toward Self-Driving Bicycles Using State-of-the-Art Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithms

1
Artificial Intelligence Lab, Computer Science and Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyonggi-do, Gyeonggi 446-701, Korea
2
Humanitas College, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Symmetry 2019, 11(2), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11020290
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
In this paper, we propose a controller for a bicycle using the DDPG (Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient) algorithm, which is a state-of-the-art deep reinforcement learning algorithm. We use a reward function and a deep neural network to build the controller. By using the proposed controller, a bicycle can not only be stably balanced but also travel to any specified location. We confirm that the controller with DDPG shows better performance than the other baselines such as Normalized Advantage Function (NAF) and Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO). For the performance evaluation, we implemented the proposed algorithm in various settings such as fixed and random speed, start location, and destination location. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG); machine learning; self-driving bicycle deep reinforcement learning; deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG); machine learning; self-driving bicycle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, S.; Le, T.P.; Nguyen, Q.D.; Layek, M.A.; Lee, S.; Chung, T. Toward Self-Driving Bicycles Using State-of-the-Art Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithms. Symmetry 2019, 11, 290. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11020290

AMA Style

Choi S, Le TP, Nguyen QD, Layek MA, Lee S, Chung T. Toward Self-Driving Bicycles Using State-of-the-Art Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithms. Symmetry. 2019; 11(2):290. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11020290

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choi, SeungYoon, Tuyen P. Le, Quang D. Nguyen, Md A. Layek, SeungGwan Lee, and TaeChoong Chung. 2019. "Toward Self-Driving Bicycles Using State-of-the-Art Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithms" Symmetry 11, no. 2: 290. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11020290

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