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Local Perceptions of Ecosystem Services Across Multiple Ecosystem Types in Spain

Social-Ecological Systems Laboratory, Department of Ecology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Darwin 2, 28049 Madrid, Spain
FRACTAL Collective, San Remigio 2, 28022 Madrid, Spain
Andalusian Center for the Assessment and Monitoring of Global Change (CAESCG), Department of Biology and Geology, University of Almeria, La Cañada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria, Spain
Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, 921 South 8th Avenue, Pocatello, ID 83209, USA
Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, University of Kassel, Steinstraße 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany
Chair on Agroecology and Food Systems, University of Vic—Central University of Catalonia (UVic-UCC), C. de la Laura, 13, 08500 Vic, Spain
Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Edifici Z (ICTA-ICP), Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
Asociación Ecología y Educación para una Ciudad Sostenible—Transitando, C/Cavanilles 10, 5D, 28007 Madrid, Spain
Departamento de Desarrollo Económico, Sostenibilidad y Medio Ambiente del Gobierno Vasco, C/Donostia-San Sebastián, 1, 01010 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Alava, Spain
Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain
Basque Center for Climate Change (BC3), Alameda Donaindiae Urquijo 4, 48008 Bilbao, Spain
Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, CNRS–Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble, France
Department of International Environment and Development Studies (Noragric), Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Gaustadalléen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway
Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Universitätsallee 1, 21335 Lüneburg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Land 2020, 9(9), 330;
Received: 23 July 2020 / Revised: 3 September 2020 / Accepted: 5 September 2020 / Published: 18 September 2020
Combining socio-cultural valuations of ecosystem services with ecological and monetary assessments is critical to informing decision making with an integrative and multi-pronged approach. This study examined differences in the perceptions of ecosystem service supply and diversity across eight major ecosystem types in Spain and scrutinized the social and ecological factors shaping these perceptions. First, we implemented 1932 face-to-face questionnaires among local inhabitants to assess perceptions of ecosystem service supply. Second, we created an ecosystem service diversity index to measure the perceived diversity of services considering agroecosystems, Mediterranean mountains, arid systems, two aquatic continental systems, coastal ecosystems and two urban ecosystems. Finally, we examined the influence of biophysical, socio-demographic and institutional factors in shaping ecosystem service perceptions. Overall, cultural services were the most widely perceived, followed by provisioning and regulating services. Provisioning services were most strongly associated with agroecosystems, mountains and coastal systems, whereas cultural services were associated with urban ecosystems and regulating services were specifically linked with agroecosystems, mountains and urban recreational areas. The highest service diversity index values corresponded to agroecosystems, mountains and wetlands. Our results also showed that socio-demographic factors, such as place of origin (urban vs. rural) and educational level, as well as institutional factors, such as management and access regimes, shaped the perception of ecosystem services. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecosystem service diversity; governance; local communities; place-based approach; socio-cultural valuation; social perception ecosystem service diversity; governance; local communities; place-based approach; socio-cultural valuation; social perception
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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Llorente, M.; J. Castro, A.; Quintas-Soriano, C.; Oteros-Rozas, E.; Iniesta-Arandia, I.; González, J.A.; García del Amo, D.; Hernández-Arroyo, M.; Casado-Arzuaga, I.; Palomo, I.; Gómez-Baggethun, E.; Onaindia, M.; Montes, C.; Martín-López, B. Local Perceptions of Ecosystem Services Across Multiple Ecosystem Types in Spain. Land 2020, 9, 330.

AMA Style

García-Llorente M, J. Castro A, Quintas-Soriano C, Oteros-Rozas E, Iniesta-Arandia I, González JA, García del Amo D, Hernández-Arroyo M, Casado-Arzuaga I, Palomo I, Gómez-Baggethun E, Onaindia M, Montes C, Martín-López B. Local Perceptions of Ecosystem Services Across Multiple Ecosystem Types in Spain. Land. 2020; 9(9):330.

Chicago/Turabian Style

García-Llorente, Marina, Antonio J. Castro, Cristina Quintas-Soriano, Elisa Oteros-Rozas, Irene Iniesta-Arandia, José A. González, David García del Amo, Marta Hernández-Arroyo, Izaskun Casado-Arzuaga, Ignacio Palomo, Erik Gómez-Baggethun, Miren Onaindia, Carlos Montes, and Berta Martín-López. 2020. "Local Perceptions of Ecosystem Services Across Multiple Ecosystem Types in Spain" Land 9, no. 9: 330.

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