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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

Local Perceptions of Ecosystem Services Across Multiple Ecosystem Types in Spain

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Social-Ecological Systems Laboratory, Department of Ecology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Darwin 2, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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FRACTAL Collective, San Remigio 2, 28022 Madrid, Spain
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Andalusian Center for the Assessment and Monitoring of Global Change (CAESCG), Department of Biology and Geology, University of Almeria, La Cañada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria, Spain
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Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, 921 South 8th Avenue, Pocatello, ID 83209, USA
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Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, University of Kassel, Steinstraße 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany
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Chair on Agroecology and Food Systems, University of Vic—Central University of Catalonia (UVic-UCC), C. de la Laura, 13, 08500 Vic, Spain
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Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Edifici Z (ICTA-ICP), Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
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Asociación Ecología y Educación para una Ciudad Sostenible—Transitando, C/Cavanilles 10, 5D, 28007 Madrid, Spain
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Departamento de Desarrollo Económico, Sostenibilidad y Medio Ambiente del Gobierno Vasco, C/Donostia-San Sebastián, 1, 01010 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Alava, Spain
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Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain
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Basque Center for Climate Change (BC3), Alameda Donaindiae Urquijo 4, 48008 Bilbao, Spain
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Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, CNRS–Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble, France
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Department of International Environment and Development Studies (Noragric), Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway
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Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Gaustadalléen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway
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Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Universitätsallee 1, 21335 Lüneburg, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Land 2020, 9(9), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9090330
Received: 23 July 2020 / Revised: 3 September 2020 / Accepted: 5 September 2020 / Published: 18 September 2020
Combining socio-cultural valuations of ecosystem services with ecological and monetary assessments is critical to informing decision making with an integrative and multi-pronged approach. This study examined differences in the perceptions of ecosystem service supply and diversity across eight major ecosystem types in Spain and scrutinized the social and ecological factors shaping these perceptions. First, we implemented 1932 face-to-face questionnaires among local inhabitants to assess perceptions of ecosystem service supply. Second, we created an ecosystem service diversity index to measure the perceived diversity of services considering agroecosystems, Mediterranean mountains, arid systems, two aquatic continental systems, coastal ecosystems and two urban ecosystems. Finally, we examined the influence of biophysical, socio-demographic and institutional factors in shaping ecosystem service perceptions. Overall, cultural services were the most widely perceived, followed by provisioning and regulating services. Provisioning services were most strongly associated with agroecosystems, mountains and coastal systems, whereas cultural services were associated with urban ecosystems and regulating services were specifically linked with agroecosystems, mountains and urban recreational areas. The highest service diversity index values corresponded to agroecosystems, mountains and wetlands. Our results also showed that socio-demographic factors, such as place of origin (urban vs. rural) and educational level, as well as institutional factors, such as management and access regimes, shaped the perception of ecosystem services. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecosystem service diversity; governance; local communities; place-based approach; socio-cultural valuation; social perception ecosystem service diversity; governance; local communities; place-based approach; socio-cultural valuation; social perception
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García-Llorente, M.; J. Castro, A.; Quintas-Soriano, C.; Oteros-Rozas, E.; Iniesta-Arandia, I.; González, J.A.; García del Amo, D.; Hernández-Arroyo, M.; Casado-Arzuaga, I.; Palomo, I.; Gómez-Baggethun, E.; Onaindia, M.; Montes, C.; Martín-López, B. Local Perceptions of Ecosystem Services Across Multiple Ecosystem Types in Spain. Land 2020, 9, 330.

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