Next Article in Journal
On Landscape Architecture Education and Professional Practice and Their Future Challenges
Next Article in Special Issue
Exploring the Potential and Contribution of UNESCO Biosphere Reserves for Landscape Governance and Management in Africa
Previous Article in Journal
Monitoring of Changes in Land Use/Land Cover in Syria from 2010 to 2018 Using Multitemporal Landsat Imagery and GIS
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Relational Approach to Landscape Stewardship: Towards a New Perspective for Multi-Actor Collaboration
Article

Unpacking Changing Multi-Actor and Multi-Level Actor Ties in Transformative Spaces: Insights from a Degraded Landscape, Machubeni, South Africa

1
Department of Environmental Science, Rhodes University, Makhanda 6140, South Africa
2
School of Sustainability, Arizona State University Tempe, Tempe, AZ 85287-5502, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Land 2020, 9(7), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9070227
Received: 4 June 2020 / Revised: 29 June 2020 / Accepted: 30 June 2020 / Published: 13 July 2020
The loss of ecosystem services through land degradation continues to be a significant concern for policymakers and land users around the world. Facilitating collective action among various actors is regarded as imperative in halting land degradation. Despite extensive research on collective action, there have been few studies that continuously map social ties and detect network evolution as a way of enabling longitudinal analysis of transformative spaces. This paper seeks to examine the changing dynamics of multi-actor and multi-level actor ties over a period of two years in Machubeni, South Africa. To do this, we used social network analysis to detect continuities and/or discontinuities of multi-actor and multi-level actor ties over time. Overall, edge density, clustering coefficient, and reciprocity scores steadily increased over the two years despite a decline in the number of active organisations within the network. Our results demonstrate that the proportion of strong ties gradually increased over time across three governance networks. However, multi-level linkages between the local municipality and the local organisations remained weak due to a lack of trust and collaborative fatigue. While the transformative space has succeeded in enhancing collaboration and knowledge sharing between local organisations and researchers, further long-term engagement with government agencies might be necessary for promoting institutional transformations and policy outcomes, and building network resilience in complex polycentric governance systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: actors; collaboration; land degradation; learning; social capital; Social Network Analysis; transformative spaces actors; collaboration; land degradation; learning; social capital; Social Network Analysis; transformative spaces
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Falayi, M.; Gambiza, J.; Schoon, M. Unpacking Changing Multi-Actor and Multi-Level Actor Ties in Transformative Spaces: Insights from a Degraded Landscape, Machubeni, South Africa. Land 2020, 9, 227. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9070227

AMA Style

Falayi M, Gambiza J, Schoon M. Unpacking Changing Multi-Actor and Multi-Level Actor Ties in Transformative Spaces: Insights from a Degraded Landscape, Machubeni, South Africa. Land. 2020; 9(7):227. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9070227

Chicago/Turabian Style

Falayi, Menelisi, James Gambiza, and Michael Schoon. 2020. "Unpacking Changing Multi-Actor and Multi-Level Actor Ties in Transformative Spaces: Insights from a Degraded Landscape, Machubeni, South Africa" Land 9, no. 7: 227. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9070227

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop