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Open AccessArticle

Agricultural Resources and Trade Strategies: Response to Falling Land-to-Labor Ratios in Malawi

School of Economics and Business, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas, Norway
Land 2020, 9(12), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120512
Received: 26 October 2020 / Revised: 28 November 2020 / Accepted: 2 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
This study assesses how growing land scarcity relative to family labor is influencing farm household decisions to trade in agricultural land and labor markets to improve their livelihood. Using the farm household model, I analyze decisions to rent-in land or hire out labor among smallholders in Malawi. I use data from two rounds of a nationally representative balanced-household panel and apply a systems approach to jointly estimate land rental and labor market decisions while controlling for simultaneity and unobserved heterogeneity. The results indicate that the falling owned-land-to-labor-endowment ratio can push households to participate in either land rental or seasonal agricultural labor markets. However, the probability of hiring out labor for casual work and short-term gains decreases when potential tenant households rent-in land. Based on asset-wealth-to-labor-endowment ratios, wealthier households are more likely to rent-in land while poorer households, including most smallholder households, are more likely to hire out labor. These results suggest higher friction in the land rental market compared to the agricultural labor markets and liquidity constraints dictating what is necessary to support agricultural operations and household needs. Accordingly, agricultural policy in Malawi should aim to reduce friction in factor markets. View Full-Text
Keywords: land scarcity; factor markets; ganyu; conditional mixed process; Malawi land scarcity; factor markets; ganyu; conditional mixed process; Malawi
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tione, S.E. Agricultural Resources and Trade Strategies: Response to Falling Land-to-Labor Ratios in Malawi. Land 2020, 9, 512. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120512

AMA Style

Tione SE. Agricultural Resources and Trade Strategies: Response to Falling Land-to-Labor Ratios in Malawi. Land. 2020; 9(12):512. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120512

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tione, Sarah E. 2020. "Agricultural Resources and Trade Strategies: Response to Falling Land-to-Labor Ratios in Malawi" Land 9, no. 12: 512. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120512

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