Gender, Land and Food Access in Ghana’s Suburban Cities: A Case of the Adenta Municipality
1. Introduction: Land and Competitive Urban Transformation
2. Land and Food Access and Gender Imbalance within a Competing Urban Space—The Nexus
2.1. Urban Competition and Land Access
2.2. Women’s Land Rights and Access
2.3. Women and Food Access
2.4. Conceptual Framework
3. Study Area and Methodology
3.1. The Study Area
3.2.1. Weighting and Ranking of Data Indicators
- To normalize all the indicators to matching units and scale, standardized values were calculated using the standard deviation formula as shown in Equation (1):Standard Value Z = (Xi − µ)/σ
- The next step was to normalize the standardized indicator values such that the values fell within 0 to 1 in order to facilitate the weighting of the indicators. The normalized standardized value as shown in Equation (2) is defined asY = (Zi − a)/(e − a)
- Reverse indicators, such as incidence of vulnerability and gender were further standardized using the formula (1 − Y) so that all values nearer or equal to 1 are those approaching food security, while those nearer zero (0) means land insecurity or within the food stress areas.
3.2.2. Weighting and Calculating Aggregate Scores
3.2.3. Using Pairwise to Simulate Land and Food Access Disparities
3.3. The Adoption of Spatial Frameworks and Multiple Evaluation Methods
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Urban Competition and Land in Adenta Municipality
4.2. Urban Sprawl, Vegetation Loss and Food Declines
4.3. Economic Access
4.4. Social Access
4.5. The Role of Sustainability Food Frameworks in Urban and Suburban Districts
4.6. The Complex Nature of the Land and Food Disparity
4.7. Land and Food System Dynamics in the Adenta Sub-City
Conflicts of Interest
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The stool (southern Ghana) and the skin (northern Ghana) is a body corporate (like the British crown) representing the people and headed by the chief.
Sample size was limited as a result of the time constraint factor of the research.
Exchange rate used $1 = Ghc 5.5.
|MUNICIPAL ZONES||Sample Communities||Number of Respondents *|
|Gbentanaa||Adenta Old Town and Housing Estate||15|
|Nii Ashale||Ashale Botwe||15|
|Pairwise Comparison—Criteria Comparison Matrix ©|
|Urban Growth||Economic Access||Social Access||Total|
|7||Very strong importance|
|2,4,6,8||Intermediate values between adjacent scale values|
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Twum, K.O.; Asiama, K.; Ayer, J.; Asante, C.Y. Gender, Land and Food Access in Ghana’s Suburban Cities: A Case of the Adenta Municipality. Land 2020, 9, 427. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9110427
Twum KO, Asiama K, Ayer J, Asante CY. Gender, Land and Food Access in Ghana’s Suburban Cities: A Case of the Adenta Municipality. Land. 2020; 9(11):427. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9110427Chicago/Turabian Style
Twum, Kwaku Owusu, Kwabena Asiama, John Ayer, and Cosmas Yaw Asante. 2020. "Gender, Land and Food Access in Ghana’s Suburban Cities: A Case of the Adenta Municipality" Land 9, no. 11: 427. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9110427