COLOMBIA, CONSTITUTION, 1991, establishes a right to territory in Title XI including indigenous reservations, and which may be self governing (Articles 286–287). The Constitution also establishes that property has a social function (Article 58) and that: The state will protect and promote associational and collective forms of property.
ECUADOR, CONSTITUTION, 2008, Article 321: The State recognizes and guarantees the right to property in all of its forms, whether public, private, community, State, associative, cooperative or mixed-economy, and that it must fulfill its social and environmental role.
ETHIOPIA, CONSTITUTION, 1994, Article 40 (2): ‘Private property’ for the purpose of this Article shall mean any tangible or intangible product which has value and is produced by the labour, creativity, enterprise or capital of an individual citizen, associations which enjoy juridical personality under the law, or in appropriate circumstances, by communities specifically empowered by law to own property in common. Amhara National Regional State Land Law, 2006, Article 10: The land in the region may be held by individuals, groups, communities, and by government.
IRELAND, LAND AND CONVEYANCING LAW REFORM, 2009, SECTION 9: Ownership of land comprises the estates and interests specified in this Part. Section 10 lists these, including at 10(4) a public or customary right as an interest. … The latter includes commonage rights shared by known arable landowners. They take affect as equitable interests (s. 10(6)). Section 10(7): Nothing in this Act affects judicial recognition of equitable interests.
KYRGYZSTAN, CONSTITUTION, 1993, Article 4: In the Kyrgyz Republic, private, state, communal and other forms of property shall be recognized and protected.
LAOS, CONSTITUTION, 1991, Article 17: The State protects and promotes all forms of property rights: state, collective, private domestic and foreign investments in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic.
MALAWI, LAND ACT, 2016, Section 7 (3): Private land shall be classified as freehold, leasehold or customary estates.
MOZAMBIQUE, CONSTITUTION, 2004, Article 99: The national economy shall guarantee the coexistence of three sectors of ownership of the means of production: public, private and cooperative. The cooperative and social sector comprises, specifically, a. community means of production, held and managed by local communities, and b. means of production exploited by workers.
NEW ZEALAND, TE TURE WHENUA MAORI ACT, 1993: Land falls into three classes of Crown, General and Maori Land, the last being the subject of this Act. Part 6 on Status of Maori Land defines Maori land as including Maori customary, Maori freehold, General Land owned by Maori, and Crown Land reserved for Maori.
SOUTH AFRICA, CONSTITUTION, 1996, Article 25 (7): A person or community dispossessed of property after 19 June 1013 as a result of past racially discriminatory laws or practices is entitled, to the extent provided by an Act of Parliament, either to restitution or that property or to equitable redress.
SWEDEN, REAL PROPERTY FORMATION ACT, 1970, Section 3: According to this law, a joint property unit is land belonging in common to several property units.
VANUATU, The Custom Land Management Act, 2013, Article 2: custom owners means any lineage, family, clan, tribe or other group who are regarded by the rules of custom, following the custom of the area in which the land is situated, as the perpetual owners of that land and, in those custom areas where an individual person is regarded by custom as able to own custom land.
UKRAINE, LAND CODE, 2001, Article 83, where land ownership rights of territorial communities are specified as lands owned by village, settlement, and city territorial communities in communal ownership.