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Article

Local Perceptions of Climate Change and Adaptation Responses from Two Mountain Regions in Tanzania

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Department of Wildlife Conservation and Political Ecology, School for International Training World Learning, Arusha P.O. Box 6007, Tanzania
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Department of Environment and Geography, York Institute of Tropical Ecosystems, University of York, 290 Wentworth Way, Heslington, York YO10 5NG, UK
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Department of International Environment and Development Studies (Noragric), Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway
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Tanzania National Parks, Arusha P.O. Box 3134, Tanzania
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Department of Wildlife Management, College of African Wildlife Management, Mweka, Moshi P.O. Box 3031, Tanzania
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African Climate and Development Initiative, Geological Sciences Building, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7700, South Africa
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Le Yu
Land 2021, 10(10), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10100999
Received: 21 July 2021 / Revised: 12 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 September 2021 / Published: 23 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountains under Pressure)
Mountain environments and communities are disproportionately impacted by climate change. Changes in temperature are greater than at lower elevations, which affect the height of the cloud base and local rainfall patterns. While our knowledge of the biophysical nature of climate change in East Africa has increased in the past few years, research on Indigenous farmers’ perceptions and adaptation responses is still lacking, particularly in mountains regions. Semi-structured interviews were administered to 300 farmers on Mount Kilimanjaro (n = 150) and the Udzungwa Mountains (n = 150) in Tanzania across gender and wealth groups. Respondents in both mountains reported not only changes in rainfall and temperature, corresponding with meteorological data, but also a greater incidence of fog, wind, frost, and hailstorms—with impacts on decreased crop yields and increased outbreaks of pests. The most common adaptation strategies used were improved crop varieties and inputs. Wealthier households diversified into horticulture or animal rearing, while poorer households of Hehe ethnicity diversified to labour and selling firewood. Despite being climate change literate and having access to radios, most respondents used Indigenous knowledge to decide on planting dates. Our findings highlight how context and culture are important when designing adaptation options and argue for greater involvement of local stakeholders in adaptation planning using a science-with-society approach. Place-based results offer generalisable insights that have application for other mountains in the Global South. View Full-Text
Keywords: farmer; Chagga; gender; East Africa; local knowledge; Kilimanjaro; Hehe; Udzungwa; wealth groups farmer; Chagga; gender; East Africa; local knowledge; Kilimanjaro; Hehe; Udzungwa; wealth groups
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaganzi, K.R.; Cuni-Sanchez, A.; Mcharazo, F.; Martin, E.H.; Marchant, R.A.; Thorn, J.P.R. Local Perceptions of Climate Change and Adaptation Responses from Two Mountain Regions in Tanzania. Land 2021, 10, 999. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10100999

AMA Style

Kaganzi KR, Cuni-Sanchez A, Mcharazo F, Martin EH, Marchant RA, Thorn JPR. Local Perceptions of Climate Change and Adaptation Responses from Two Mountain Regions in Tanzania. Land. 2021; 10(10):999. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10100999

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kaganzi, Kaiza R., Aida Cuni-Sanchez, Fatuma Mcharazo, Emanuel H. Martin, Robert A. Marchant, and Jessica P.R. Thorn 2021. "Local Perceptions of Climate Change and Adaptation Responses from Two Mountain Regions in Tanzania" Land 10, no. 10: 999. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10100999

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