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Article

Characterization of Soil Carbon Stocks in the City of Johannesburg

1
Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9301, South Africa
2
Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Land 2021, 10(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010083
Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 13 January 2021 / Accepted: 13 January 2021 / Published: 18 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Management for Sustainability)
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a crucial indicator of soil health and soil productivity. The long-term implications of rapid urbanization on sustainability have, in recent years, raised concern. This study aimed to characterize the SOC stocks in the Johannesburg Granite Dome, a highly urbanized and contaminated area. Six soil hydropedological groups; (recharge (deep), recharge (shallow), responsive (shallow), responsive (saturated), interflow (A/B), and interflow (soil/bedrock)) were identified to determine the vertical distribution of the SOC stocks and assess the variation among the soil groups. The carbon (C) content, bulk density, and soil depth were determined for all soil groups, and thereafter the SOC stocks were calculated. Organic C stocks in the A horizon ranged, on average, from 33.55 ± 21.73 t C ha−1 for recharge (deep) soils to 17.11 ± 7.62 t C ha−1 for responsive (shallow) soils. Higher C contents in some soils did not necessarily indicate higher SOC stocks due to the combined influence of soil depth and bulk density. Additionally, the total SOC stocks ranged from 92.82 ± 39.2 t C ha−1 for recharge (deep) soils to 22.81 ± 16.84 t C ha−1 for responsive (shallow) soils. Future studies should determine the SOC stocks in urban areas, taking diverse land-uses and the presence of iron (Fe) oxides into consideration. This is crucial for understanding urban ecosystem functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil quality; soil organic carbon stocks; and urban areas soil quality; soil organic carbon stocks; and urban areas
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MDPI and ACS Style

Seboko, K.R.; Kotze, E.; van Tol, J.; van Zijl, G. Characterization of Soil Carbon Stocks in the City of Johannesburg. Land 2021, 10, 83. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010083

AMA Style

Seboko KR, Kotze E, van Tol J, van Zijl G. Characterization of Soil Carbon Stocks in the City of Johannesburg. Land. 2021; 10(1):83. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010083

Chicago/Turabian Style

Seboko, Kelebohile R., Elmarie Kotze, Johan van Tol, and George van Zijl. 2021. "Characterization of Soil Carbon Stocks in the City of Johannesburg" Land 10, no. 1: 83. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010083

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