Next Article in Journal
Bedload and Suspended Load Transport in the 140-km Reach Downstream of the Mississippi River Avulsion to the Atchafalaya River
Next Article in Special Issue
Water Saving and Cost Analysis of Large-Scale Implementation of Domestic Rain Water Harvesting in Minor Mediterranean Islands
Previous Article in Journal
Changes in Phytoplankton and Water Quality during Sustainable Restoration of an Urban Lake Used for Recreation and Water Supply
Previous Article in Special Issue
End-User Cost-Benefit Prioritization for Selecting Rainwater Harvesting and Greywater Reuse in Social Housing
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Water 2017, 9(9), 714;

Use of Cotton as a Carbon Source for Denitrification in Biofilters for Groundwater Remediation

Unit of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be’er-Sheva 8410501, Israel
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Alternative Water Sources in the Urban Sector)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3046 KB, uploaded 18 September 2017]   |  


This study is part of a comprehensive research aimed at the development and application of the “Water Sensitive Cities” idea in Israel. This is a sustainable concept, incorporating among others the harvesting, treatment, and reuse of storm-water. The use of engineered biofiltration systems for the harvesting and treatment of storm-water in Israel is complicated due to the prolonged dry climate period, spanning 7–8 months of the year. Therefore, the tactic suggested is to use a hybrid biofiltration system for both storm-water harvesting/polishing during winter, and for remediation of nitrate-contaminated groundwater during summer. This paper focuses on the summer design (denitrification) configuration. In preliminary experiments, it was found that crude cotton could serve as an effective carbon source for denitrification. Further results are reported herein regarding the design and operation of biofilter columns applied for the treatment of synthetic mixtures simulating nitrate-contaminated groundwater. The columns were composed of crude cotton wool and polyethylene beads, which prevented the effect of cotton compression. This application was shown to enable controlled removal of nitrate to low levels, while emitting very low concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrite. It was also concluded that a biofilter requires judicious design and operation, since complete removal of nitrogen oxides might lead to the formation of undesired compounds such as sulfides due to the development of anaerobic conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofilter; cotton; denitrification; groundwater remediation; storm-water; water sensitive cities biofilter; cotton; denitrification; groundwater remediation; storm-water; water sensitive cities

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Aloni, A.; Brenner, A. Use of Cotton as a Carbon Source for Denitrification in Biofilters for Groundwater Remediation. Water 2017, 9, 714.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top