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Open AccessArticle

Influencing Factors and Simplified Model of Film Hole Irrigation

by Yi-Bo Li 1,2, Yan-Wei Fan 3, Ye Liu 1,2 and Xiao-Yi Ma 1,2,*
College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
College of Energy and Power Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2017, 9(7), 543;
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Solute Transport in Vadose Zone)
Film hole irrigation is an advanced low-cost and high-efficiency irrigation method, which can improve water conservation and water use efficiency. Given its various advantages and potential applications, we conducted a laboratory study to investigate the effects of soil texture, bulk density, initial soil moisture, irrigation depth, opening ratio (ρ), film hole diameter (D), and spacing on cumulative infiltration using SWMS-2D. We then proposed a simplified model based on the Kostiakov model for infiltration estimation. Error analyses indicated SWMS-2D to be suitable for infiltration simulation of film hole irrigation. Additional SWMS-2D-based investigations indicated that, for a certain soil, initial soil moisture and irrigation depth had the weakest effects on cumulative infiltration, whereas ρ and D had the strongest effects on cumulative infiltration. A simplified model with ρ and D was further established, and its use was then expanded to different soils. Verification based on seven soil types indicated that the established simplified double-factor model effectively estimates cumulative infiltration for film hole irrigation, with a small mean average error of 0.141–2.299 mm, a root mean square error of 0.177–2.722 mm, a percent bias of −2.131–1.479%, and a large Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient that is close to 1.0. View Full-Text
Keywords: film hole irrigation; simplified model; SWMS-2D film hole irrigation; simplified model; SWMS-2D
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Li, Y.-B.; Fan, Y.-W.; Liu, Y.; Ma, X.-Y. Influencing Factors and Simplified Model of Film Hole Irrigation. Water 2017, 9, 543.

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