Influencing Factors and Simplified Model of Film Hole Irrigation
AbstractFilm hole irrigation is an advanced low-cost and high-efficiency irrigation method, which can improve water conservation and water use efficiency. Given its various advantages and potential applications, we conducted a laboratory study to investigate the effects of soil texture, bulk density, initial soil moisture, irrigation depth, opening ratio (ρ), film hole diameter (D), and spacing on cumulative infiltration using SWMS-2D. We then proposed a simplified model based on the Kostiakov model for infiltration estimation. Error analyses indicated SWMS-2D to be suitable for infiltration simulation of film hole irrigation. Additional SWMS-2D-based investigations indicated that, for a certain soil, initial soil moisture and irrigation depth had the weakest effects on cumulative infiltration, whereas ρ and D had the strongest effects on cumulative infiltration. A simplified model with ρ and D was further established, and its use was then expanded to different soils. Verification based on seven soil types indicated that the established simplified double-factor model effectively estimates cumulative infiltration for film hole irrigation, with a small mean average error of 0.141–2.299 mm, a root mean square error of 0.177–2.722 mm, a percent bias of −2.131–1.479%, and a large Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient that is close to 1.0. View Full-Text
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Li, Y.-B.; Fan, Y.-W.; Liu, Y.; Ma, X.-Y. Influencing Factors and Simplified Model of Film Hole Irrigation. Water 2017, 9, 543.
Li Y-B, Fan Y-W, Liu Y, Ma X-Y. Influencing Factors and Simplified Model of Film Hole Irrigation. Water. 2017; 9(7):543.Chicago/Turabian Style
Li, Yi-Bo; Fan, Yan-Wei; Liu, Ye; Ma, Xiao-Yi. 2017. "Influencing Factors and Simplified Model of Film Hole Irrigation." Water 9, no. 7: 543.
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