Assessing the Integration of Wetlands along Small European Waterways to Address Diffuse Nitrate Pollution
AbstractNitrate concentrations in numerous European fresh watercourses have decreased due to end-of-pipe measures towards manure and fertilization management, but fail to meet the environmental objectives. The implementation of complementary measures to attenuate diffuse nitrate pollution in densely populated regions characterised by limited available area has been barely studied. To tackle this issue, this study evaluates the feasibility of integrating Constructed Wetlands (CWs) along waterways as a promising tool to facilitate compliance with the nitrate regulations. The aim is to calculate the required area of land alongside a specific watercourse to integrate CWs to reduce nitrate concentrations consistently below the 11.3 and 5.65 mgNO3-N/L levels, according to the Nitrates Directive and the Flemish Environmental Regulations. Nitrate-nitrogen removal efficiencies achieved at case study CWs were compared and validated with reported values to estimate the needed wetland areas. In addition, the removal efficiencies and areas needed to meet the standards were calculated via the kinetic model by Kadlec and Knight. The predicted areas by both methods indicated that CWs of 1.4–3.4 ha could be implemented in certain regions, such as Flanders (Belgium), with restricted available land. To conclude, three designs for ICWs (Integrated Constructed Wetlands) are proposed and evaluated, assessing the feasibility of their implementation. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Donoso, N.; Gobeyn, S.; Boets, P.; Goethals, P.L.M.; Wilde, D.D.; Meers, E. Assessing the Integration of Wetlands along Small European Waterways to Address Diffuse Nitrate Pollution. Water 2017, 9, 369.
Donoso N, Gobeyn S, Boets P, Goethals PLM, Wilde DD, Meers E. Assessing the Integration of Wetlands along Small European Waterways to Address Diffuse Nitrate Pollution. Water. 2017; 9(6):369.Chicago/Turabian Style
Donoso, Natalia; Gobeyn, Sacha; Boets, Pieter; Goethals, Peter L. M.; Wilde, Denis De; Meers, Erik. 2017. "Assessing the Integration of Wetlands along Small European Waterways to Address Diffuse Nitrate Pollution." Water 9, no. 6: 369.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.