Next Article in Journal
Modeling Regional Soil Water Balance in Farmland of the Middle Reaches of Heihe River Basin
Next Article in Special Issue
Overview, Comparative Assessment and Recommendations of Forecasting Models for Short-Term Water Demand Prediction
Previous Article in Journal
Non-Metropolitan Drinking Water Suppliers’ Response to the Diagnostic Tool for Non-Technical Compliance in Limpopo, South Africa
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Hybrid Water Distribution Networks Design Optimization Method Based on a Search Space Reduction Approach and a Genetic Algorithm
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Water 2017, 9(11), 851;

Implementation of DMAs in Intermittent Water Supply Networks Based on Equity Criteria

Facultad Nacional de Ingeniería, Universidad Técnica de Oruro, Ciudad universitaria s/n, 49 Oruro, Bolivia
FluIng-IMM, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, Edif. 5C, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Berliner Wasserbetriebe, Cisero Straße 40, 10107 Berlin, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [4734 KB, uploaded 3 November 2017]   |  


Intermittent supply is a common way of delivering water in many developing countries. Limitations on water and economic resources, in addition to poor management and population growth, limit the possibilities of delivering water 24 h a day. Intermittent water supply networks are usually designed and managed in an empirical manner, or using tools and criteria devised for continuous supply systems, and this approach can produce supply inequity. In this paper, an approach based on the hydraulic capacity concept, which uses soft computing tools of graph theory and cluster analysis, is developed to define sectors, also called district metered areas (DMAs), to produce an equitable water supply. Moreover, this approach helps determine the supply time for each sector, which depends on each sector’s hydraulic characteristics. This process also includes the opinions of water company experts, the individuals who are best acquainted with the intricacies of the network. View Full-Text
Keywords: intermittent water supply; cluster analysis; graph theory; DMA; equity intermittent water supply; cluster analysis; graph theory; DMA; equity

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ilaya-Ayza, A.E.; Martins, C.; Campbell, E.; Izquierdo, J. Implementation of DMAs in Intermittent Water Supply Networks Based on Equity Criteria. Water 2017, 9, 851.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top