Next Article in Journal
Water Footprint Calculation on the Basis of Input–Output Analysis and a Biproportional Algorithm: A Case Study for the Yellow River Basin, China
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of Soil Water Availability (SWA) Based on Hydrological Modelling in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas: A Case Study in Handan City, China
Open AccessArticle

Source Apportionment of Annual Water Pollution Loads in River Basins by Remote-Sensed Land Cover Classification

State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Science, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region (Chang’an University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710064, China
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710064, China
Faculty of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Y. Jun Xu
Water 2016, 8(9), 361;
Received: 4 April 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
In this study, in order to determine the efficiency of estimating annual water pollution loads from remote-sensed land cover classification and ground-observed hydrological data, an empirical model was investigated. Remote sensing data imagery from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer were applied to an 11 year (1994–2004) water quality dataset for 30 different rivers in Japan. Six water quality indicators—total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and dissolved oxygen (DO)—were examined by using the observed river water quality data and generated land cover map. The TN, TP, BOD, COD, and DO loads were estimated for the 30 river basins using the empirical model. Calibration (1994–1999) and validation (2000–2004) results showed that the proposed simulation technique was useful for predicting water pollution loads in the river basins. We found that vegetation land cover had a larger impact on TP export into all rivers. Urban areas had a very small impact on DO export into rivers, but a relatively large impact on BOD and TN export. The results indicate that the application of land cover data generated from the remote-sensed imagery could give a useful interpretation about the river water quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: Japan; river; water quality; remote sensing; AVHRR Japan; river; water quality; remote sensing; AVHRR
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Y.; He, B.; Duan, W.; Li, W.; Luo, P.; Razafindrabe, B.H.N. Source Apportionment of Annual Water Pollution Loads in River Basins by Remote-Sensed Land Cover Classification. Water 2016, 8, 361.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop