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Small Boreal Lake Ecosystem Evolution under the Influence of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors: Results of Multidisciplinary Long-Term Study

Institute of Environmental Problems of the North, Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Severnoy Dviny Embankment, 23, Arkhangelsk 163000, Russia
Georesources and Environnement Toulouse GET UMR 5563 CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, Toulouse 31400, France
The North-Western Branch of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 112/3, Northern Dvina Embankment, Arkhangelsk 163061, Russia
Lomonosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University, 17, Northern Dvina Embankment, Arkhangelsk 163002, Russia
BIO-GEO-CLIM Laboratory, Tomsk State University, Prospekt Lenina 36, Tomsk 634050, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Erik Jeppesen and Martin Søndergaard
Water 2016, 8(8), 316;
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 4 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 26 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
PDF [3382 KB, uploaded 2 August 2016]


Small aquatic ecosystems of the boreal zone are known to be most sensitive indicators of on-going environmental change as well as local anthropogenic pressure, while being highly vulnerable to external impacts. Compared to rather detailed knowledge of the evolution of large and small lakes in Scandinavia and Canada, and large lakes in Eurasia, highly abundant small boreal lakes of northwest Russia have received very little attention, although they may become important centers of attraction of growing rural population in the near future. Here we present the results of a multidisciplinary, multi-annual study of a small boreal humic lake of NW Russia. A shallow (3 m) and a deep (16 m) site of this lake were regularly sampled for a range of chemical and biological parameters. Average multi-daily, summer-time values of the epilimnion (upper oxygenated) layer of the lake provided indications of possible trends in temperature, nutrients, and bacterio-plankton concentration that revealed the local pollution impact in the shallow zone and overall environmental trend in the deep sampling point of the lake. Organic phosphorus, nitrate, and lead were found to be most efficient tracers of local anthropogenic pollution, especially visible in the surface layer of the shallow site of the lake. Cycling of trace elements between the epilimnion and hypolimnion is tightly linked to dissolved organic matter speciation and size fractionation due to the dominance of organic and organo-ferric colloids. The capacity of lake self-purification depends on the ratio of primary productivity to mineralization of organic matter. This ratio remained >1 both during winter and summer periods, which suggests a high potential of lake recovery from the input of allochthonous dissolved organic matter and local anthropogenic pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: boreal; multidisciplinary long-term study; small lake boreal; multidisciplinary long-term study; small lake

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Shirokova, L.; Vorobieva, T.; Zabelina, S.; Klimov, S.; Moreva, O.; Chupakov, A.; Makhnovich, N.; Gogolitsyn, V.; Sobko, E.; Shorina, N.; Kokryatskaya, N.; Ershova, A.; Pokrovsky, O. Small Boreal Lake Ecosystem Evolution under the Influence of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors: Results of Multidisciplinary Long-Term Study. Water 2016, 8, 316.

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