Next Article in Journal
A Two-Step Approach for Analytical Optimal Hedging with Two Triggers
Next Article in Special Issue
The Potential Growth of Sugarcane in Constructed Wetlands Designed for Tertiary Treatment of Wastewater
Previous Article in Journal
Estimating Sediment Discharge Using Sediment Rating Curves and Artificial Neural Networks in the Shiwen River, Taiwan
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Plant Harvesting on the Performance of Constructed Wetlands during Summer
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2016, 8(2), 51;

Efficiency of a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treatment System in an Arid Area

Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Ecological Engineering Research Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension, Al-Baqa’a 19381, Jordan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Alan Howard and Defu Xu
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 25 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed Wetlands Systems and Management)
Full-Text   |   PDF [807 KB, uploaded 5 February 2016]   |  


The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and treatment efficiency of the Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland treatment system (HSF-CW) in an arid climate. Seventeen sub-surface, horizontal-flow HSF-CW units have been operated for approximately three years to improve the quality of partially-treated municipal wastewater. The studied design parameters included two sizes of volcanic tuff media (i.e., fine or coarse), two different bed dimensions (i.e., long and short), and three plantation types (i.e., reed, kenaf, or no vegetation as a control). The effluent Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), and phosphorus from all of the treatments were significantly lower as compared to the influent and demonstrated a removal efficiency of 55%, 51%, 67%, and 55%, respectively. There were significant increases in Electrical Conductivity (EC), sulfate, and calcium in the effluent of most HSF-CWs due to evaporative concentration and mineral dissolution from the media. The study suggests that unplanted beds with either fine or coarse media are the most suitable combinations among all of the studied designs based on their treatment efficiency and less water loss in arid conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: water reuse; constructed wetland; wastewater treatment; removal efficiency; Jordan water reuse; constructed wetland; wastewater treatment; removal efficiency; Jordan

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Albalawneh, A.; Chang, T.-K.; Chou, C.-S.; Naoum, S. Efficiency of a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treatment System in an Arid Area. Water 2016, 8, 51.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top