- freely available
Water 2016, 8(10), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100437
Greater policy coherence among the three sectors (water, energy and agriculture) is critical for decoupling increased food production from water and energy intensity and moving to a sustainable and efficient use of resources. The nexus approach can enhance understanding of the interconnectedness of the sectors and strengthen coordination among them.
2. Research Sites and Methods
…water supplies for agricultural, industrial, and urban–domestic uses; water filtration/purification; flow regulation; flood control; erosion and sedimentation control; fisheries, timber and other forest products; recreation/tourism; habitat for biodiversity preservation; aesthetic enjoyment; climate stabilization; and cultural, religious and inspirational values.
…though announced as neutral technological artefacts, (large dams and diversions) are deeply implicated in several processes that have been integral to affecting types of enclosure, hydraulic transfer, the expropriation and elimination of other water management skills and traditions and inevitably the externalisation of real costs through displacement onto the most marginal and impoverished communities.
Questions of justice are … at the heart of many environmental disputes, such as … infrastructure development projects... While broad in scope these environmental disagreements share common characteristics which include how decisions are made and how public goods, such as power generation infrastructure, and environmental burdens … are distributed.
3.1. Main Actors and Governance Linkages in the Study Area
We came to know about the ongoing construction plans only when we saw the machines. We led the group and reached the construction site. The moment villagers went to stop the construction, police were employed. The police would not even let us access our fields. We did not want them to take away the water used for irrigating our fields. So we started the protest that lasted for about a year. We would take turns going to our fields for work, attending to the needs of our children and also participating in the protest. For hours, groups of men and women would sit determined by the side of the road and would get up only when surrounded by the police. We participated in frequent hunger strikes. In my memory we stayed hungry for four days continuously one time and eight days another time. We were sent to jail at three different places three times. A settlement was reached after one year of tiring agitation, when we got water for irrigating our fields. However, if you ask me, the most important impact has been on our mental peace of mind and well-being, which can’t be reimbursed (translation from Hindi ours).
3.2. Case Studies
3.2.1. Observed Common Social Impacts in All Studied Hydroelectric Project (HEP) Areas
3.2.2. Impacts Observed in the Case of Devling and Chakar Village, Bhilangana III HEP Area
They caused damage to our agricultural fields and did not compensate us for it. Our harvest has been reduced due to less water available for irrigation and a lot of dust from the construction. The springs feeding our guhls (irrigation channels) have disappeared because of the blasting. This pollution in the area has also impacted our grazing land. It’s just not the same grass anymore and animals won’t consume it. Many of us have therefore sold off fifty per cent of our milch (dairy) cattle.
The forest is far away. Lower availability from other sources has increased our time and effort. There is a fear of wild animals in deeper nooks and crannies in the forest. We have no help from the men. So we have reduced the number of animals we keep.
Compensation for Losses
3.2.3. Impacts Observed in Chani Village, Agunda–Thati HEP Area Despite Signed Agreement
We have been living here for generations and now they have taken everything away. The developer belongs to the same district (but is now a large industrialist living in the large city of Dehradun). We told others: learn a lesson from our village.
I have seen three varieties of fish in the river. We call them as machibag, machhi, gadiyal locally. One of them is red and yellow in color. Earlier we would go for fishing in the summers. In the monsoon season, we would catch fish from standing water in the paddy crop (coming up from the river). Now, since most of the water is diverted in the hydropower channel, I do not see any fish in these waters. My fellow men and I from the village do not visit the river for fishing anymore.
3.2.4. Impacts on Environmental Flows Observed in Phalenda Village, Bhilangana HEP Area
4.1. Governance of Run-Of-The-River Hydropower
4.2. Benefits Sharing
4.4. Planning for a Basin with Decentralized and Centralized Distributed Generation Solutions
Conflicts of Interest
|DPR||detailed project report|
|EIA||environmental impact assessment|
|LADF||local area development fund|
|MMD||Mahila Mangal Dal (women’s village welfare groups)|
|NIDM||National Institute of Disaster Management|
|PRI||Panchayati Raj Institution|
|YMD||Yuvak Mangal Dal (youth welfare groups)|
- Scott, C.A.; Crootof, A.; Thapa, B.; Shrestha, R.K. The water-energy-food nexus in the Ganges Basin: Challenges and opportunities. In Water Management in the Ganges Basin; Bharati, L., Smakhtin, V., Sharma, B.R., Eds.; Earthscan: London, UK, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Kumar, D.; Katoch, S.S. Sustainability indicators for run of the river (RoR) hydropower projects in hydro rich regions of India. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2014, 35, 101–108. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- REN21. Renewables Global Status Report (GSR). Paris, REN21 Secretariat. 2015. Available online: http://www.ren21.net/status-of-renewables/global-status-report/ (accessed on 12 February 2016).
- Mukherji, A.; Molden, D.; Rasul, S.G.; Wagnon, P. Himalayan waters at the crossroads: Issues and challenges: Editorial. Int. J. Water Resour. Dev. 2015, 31, 151–160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Shah, T. Climate change and groundwater: India’s opportunities for mitigation and adaptation. Environ. Res. Lett. 2009, 4, 035005. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- World Health Organization. Ambient (Outdoor) Air Pollution in Cities Database 2014. Available online: http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/AAP_database_results_2014.pdf (accessed on 5 April 2016).
- Rasul, G. Managing the food, water, and energy nexus for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in South Asia. Environ. Dev. 2015. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Watershed Management Directorate, Dehra Dun. Uttarakhand State Perspective and Strategic Plan 2009–2027. Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand, 2010; p. 288. Available online: http://wmduk.gov.in/Perspective_Plan_2009–2027.pdf (accessed on 1 March 2016). [Google Scholar]
- Joshi, K.; Bhardwaj, N. Women and natural resource management: A study of ‘communities of practice’ prevailing in women farmers’ community management of water and forests of lesser Himalayan region in India. Int. J. Adv. Res. 2015, 3, 363–374. [Google Scholar]
- Reddy, V.R.; Uitto, J.I.; Frans, D.R.; Matin, N. Achieving global environmental benefits through local development of clean energy? The case of small hilly hydel in India. Energy Policy 2006, 34, 4069–4080. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ministry of Environment and Forests. Assessment of Environmental Degradation and Impact of Hydroelectric Projects during the June 2013 Disaster in Uttarakhand, Main Report, MoEF. Government of India, April 2014. Chapter 2, ToR 2.1 a. p. 34. Available online: http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/file/environmental%20degradation%20&%20hydroelectric%20projects.pdf (accessed on 10 January 2016).
- Gopalakrishnan, M. Resettlement and Rehabilitation: Lessons from India. In Impacts of Large Dams: A Global Assessment; Dogan, A., Biswas, A., Tortajada, C., Eds.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Asthana, V.; Cheney, W.A. Forced Displacement: A Gendered Analysis of the Tehri Dam Project in India. Econ. Political Wkly. 2012, 47, 96–102. [Google Scholar]
- Mäkinen, K.; Khan, S. Policy considerations for greenhouse gas emissions from freshwater reservoirs. Water Altern. 2010, 3, 91–105. [Google Scholar]
- Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M. Framing hydropower as green energy: Assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas. Earth Syst. Dyn. Discuss. 2014, 5, 1521–1541. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Postel, S.L.; Thompson, B.H. Watershed protection: Capturing the benefits of nature's water supply services. Nat. Resour. Forum 2005, 29, 98–108. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- ESHA. The European Small Hydropower Association, 2009. Environmental Barometer on Small Hydro Power. Brussels, Belgium. Available online: http://www.esha.be/fileadmin/esha_files/documents/SHERPA/Environmental_Barometer_SHP.pdf (accessed on 29 February 2016).
- Uttarakhand Jal Vidyut Nigam, Ltd.; Uttarakand, India. Personal communication, 2013.
- Pearce, F. Dams and floods. In Large Dams for Hydropower in Northeast India: A Dossier; Menon, M., Kohli, K., Eds.; SANDRP: Pune, India, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- D’Souza, R. Filling Multipurpose Reservoirs with Politics: Displacing the Modern Large Dam in India. In Large Dams in Asia; Nüsser, M., Ed.; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Bhattacharyya, S.C. Energy access programmes and sustainable development: A critical review and analysis. Energy Sustain. Dev. 2012, 16, 260–271. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Urpelainen, J. Grid and off-grid electrification: An integrated model with applications to India. Energy Sustain. Dev. 2014, 19, 66–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zepeda, E.; McDonald, S.; Panda, M.; Kumar, G.; Sapkota, C. Employing India: Guaranteeing jobs for the rural poor. A Report Published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the UNDP. p. 86. Available online: http://issuu.com/carnegie_endowment/docs/india_rural_employment/1?e=3035200/5270418 (accessed on 26 September 2016).
- Wüstenhagen, R.; Wolsink, M.; Bürer, M.J. Social acceptance of renewable energy innovation: An introduction to the concept. Energy Policy 2007, 35, 2683–2691. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chowdhury, A.J.U.; Rasul, G. Equity and social justice in water resource governance: The case of Bangladesh. South Asian Water Stud. 2011, 2, 44–58. [Google Scholar]
- Young, I.M. Justice and the Politics of Difference; Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Gross, C. Community perspectives of wind energy in Australia: The application of a justice and community fairness framework to increase social acceptance. Energy Policy 2007, 35, 2727–2736. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Braun, Y.A. Interrogating large-scale development and inequality in Lesotho. In A Political Ecology of Women, Water and Global Environmental Change; Buechler, S., Hanson, A., Eds.; Routledge: Abingdon-on-Thames, UK, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Rai, K. Dam Development: The Dynamics of Social Inequality in a Hydropower Project in Nepal; Cuvillier Verlag: Göttingen, Germany, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Mathur, H.M. Displacement and Resettlement in India: The Human Cost of Development; Routledge: London, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Baviskar, A. Written on the body, written on the land: Violence and environmental struggles in central India. In Nancy Peluso and Michael Watts; Cornell University Press: Ithaca, NY, USA, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Asthana, V.; Shukla, A.C. Water Security in India: Hope, Despair and the Challenges of Human Development; Bloomsbury Publishing: New York, NY, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Mohan, V.; Thakur, P. Make Disaster Study a Must for Uttarakhand Hydel Projects. Times of India, 17 August 2015. 07.09 AM IST. Available online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Make-disaster-study-must-for-Uttarakhand-hydel-projects/articleshow/48507584.cms (accessed on 20 April 2016).
- Tiwari, P.; Joshi, B. Gender processes in rural out-migration and socio-economic development in the Himalaya. Migr. Dev. 2016, 5, 330–350. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ogra, M.V.; Badola, R. Gender and climate change in the Indian Himalayas: Global threats, local vulnerabilities, and livelihood diversification at the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. Earth Syst. Dyn. 2015, 6, 505–523. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Baker, J.M. Small hydropower development in Himachal Pradesh. An analysis of socioecological effects. Econ. Political Wkly. (EPW) 2014, 49, 21. [Google Scholar]
- Huber, A.; Joshi, D. Hydropower, Anti-Politics, and the Opening of New Political Spaces in the Eastern Himalayas. World Dev. 2015, 76, 13–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lahiri-Dutt, K. Large dams and changes in an agrarian society: Gendering the impacts of Damodar Valley Corporation in eastern India. Water Altern. 2012, 5, 529–542. [Google Scholar]
- Asthana, V. Women and Forced Displacement in the Tehri Dam Project. Available online: http://refugeewatchonline.blogspot.com/2011/02/women-and-forced-displacementin-tehri.html (accessed on 28 February 2011).
- Baruah, B. The Narmada Valley Project: Displacement of local populations and impact on women. Nat. Resour. Forum 1999, 23, 81–84. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barve, N.S. Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Sardar Sarovar Dam Resettlement. Available online: http://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/etd_theses/3846 (accessed on 26 September 2016).
- Rangachari, R. Bhakra-Nangal Project: Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Nayak, A.K. Development, Displacement and Justice in India: Study of Hirakud Dam. Soc. Chang. 2013, 43, 397–419. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- World Commission on Dams. Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making, the Report of the World Commission on Dams; Earthscan Publications Ltd.: London, UK; Sterling, VA, USA, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Integrated Research and Action for Development (IRADe). Gender Analysis of Renewable Energy in India: Present Status, Issues, Approaches and New Initiatives; Integrated Research and Action for Development: New Delhi, India, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Chopra, A.K.; Chakrabarti, P. The Koyna earthquake and the damage to Koyna Dam. In Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America; Seismological Society of America: Albany, CA, USA, 1973. [Google Scholar]
- Bhatia, S. The Danger of Reservoir-Induced Seismicity. The Hindu. Available online: http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-openpage/the-danger-of-reservoirinduced-seismicity/article900414.ece (accessed on 10 January 2016).
- Down to Earth. Is the Tehri Dam Safe? Centre for Science and Environment: New Delhi, India, 1998. [Google Scholar]
- South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People. Two Years of Uttarakhand Flood Disaster of June 2013: Why is State & Centre Gambling with the Himalayas, the Ganga & Lives of Millions? South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People (SANDRP): Delhi, India, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Chopra, R. Uttarakhand: Development and Ecological Sustainability. Report produced for Oxfam India, New Delhi. 2014, p. 53. Available online: http://www.environmentportal.in/files/file/UttarakhandDevpEcoSustainabiity.pdf (accessed on 15 January 2016).
- Shrestha, P.; Lord, A.; Mukherji, A.; Shrestha, R.K.; Yadav, L.; Rai, N. Benefit Sharing and Sustainable Hydropower: Lessons from Nepal; ICIMOD: Kathmandu, Nepal, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Securities Board of Nepal. Securities Registration and Issue Regulations 2008; First Amendment: Kathmandu, Nepal, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Chopra, R. Hydropower Development in Uttarakhand: A Situation Analysis Report; People’s Science Institute: Uttarakhand, India, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Chandra, K.K. Electricity Is a Beginning in the Uplift of Villages and Not the End. Available online: http://www.theweekendleader.com/Causes/1339/beyond-power.html#sthash.yjjCSfG4.dpuf) (accessed on 20 January 2016).
- Mehta, G.S. Development of Uttarakhand: Issues and Perspectives; APH Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India, 1999. [Google Scholar]
- Valdiya, K.S. Environmental Geology: Ecology, Resource and Hazard Management; McGraw-Hill Education: New York, NY, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Tambe, S.; Kharel, G.; Arrawatia, M.L.; Kulkarni, H.; Mahamuni, K.; Ganeriwala, A.K. Reviving Dying Springs: Climate Change Adaptation Experiments from the Sikkim Himalaya. Mount. Res. Dev. 2012, 32, 62–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Molle, F.; Wester, P. Developing and Managing River Basins: The Need for Adaptive, Multilevel, Collaborative Institutional Arrangements, Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture; International Water Management Institute: Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Kemper, K.; Blomquist, W.; Dinar, A. Integrated River Basin Management through Decentralization; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Environment and Gender Index. Women’s Participation in Global Environmental Decision Making. Available online: https://portals.iucn.org/union/sites/union/files/doc/egi_factsheet_desicion_making_web_sept2015.pdf (accessed on 28 April 2016).
© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).