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Open AccessArticle

Optimizing Hollow Fibre Nanofiltration for Organic Matter Rich Lake Water

Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB (VIVAB), 311 22 Falkenberg, Sweden
Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lund Technical University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science and Technology, University of New South Wales, 2052 Sydney, Australia
Pentair X-Flow B.V., 7500 Enschede, The Netherlands
Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen Gray
Water 2016, 8(10), 430;
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 26 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Membranes for Water Treatment)
Over the years, various technologies have been utilized for Natural Organic Matter (NOM) removal with varying degrees of success. Conventional treatment methods comprising of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, or filtration are widely used to remove NOM. An alternative to these conventional methods is to use spiral wound membranes. These membranes tend to remove too much hardness whilst being ineffective in disinfection. They also have a low tolerance to chlorine and thus, have limited chemical cleaning options. In this study, we investigated how an alternative and new innovative filtration concept, based on capillary NF membranes from modified polyethersulfone (PES), may be used to treat soft but humus-rich surface waters. Comprehensive performance tests, with a fully automated membrane pilot equipped with a full-scale sized test module (40 m2 membrane surface), were conducted at WTP Görvälnverket, which is operated by the water utility Norrvatten, providing drinking water from Mälaren (SUVA = 2.7–3.3, TOC = 7.0–10.0 mg·L−1) for about 500,000 people in the northern part of the Swedish capital of Stockholm. The removal of both UV and DOC was modeled using a solution diffusion approach. The optimized parameters allow deducing optimal operation conditions with respect to energy, water consumption, and permeate water quality. Optimal cross flow velocity was determined to be 0.75 m·s−1 at 80% recovery and a flux of 12–18 L·m−2·h−1. Under these conditions, 80% of the UV, 75% of the Humic Substances (MW = 600) and 70% of TOC were removed (from 8 to below 2 mg·L−1). A higher cross flow velocity led to marginal improvement (+2%) while both higher and lower membrane fluxes degraded permeate water quality. Apparent optimized diffusion coefficients for UV and TOC were around 1.2–2.4 × 10−10·m2·s−1 and were similar to values found in the literature. Due to their higher diffusion coefficients and higher permeability coefficient, only 40% of the low molecular weight acids (MW = 300–400) were retained. Approximately 30%–40% of the low molecular weight acids in the permeate can be further removed using GAC post NF. The resulting energy consumption of a hypothetical four-stage design, at average operating temperature of 5.73 °C, was calculated to be around 0.6 kWh·m−3 produced water. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanofiltration; hollow fiber; natural organic matter (NOM); solution diffusion model nanofiltration; hollow fiber; natural organic matter (NOM); solution diffusion model
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Keucken, A.; Wang, Y.; Tng, K.H.; Leslie, G.; Spanjer, T.; Köhler, S.J. Optimizing Hollow Fibre Nanofiltration for Organic Matter Rich Lake Water. Water 2016, 8, 430.

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