Experimental Study of Geysering in an Upstream Vertical Shaft
1. Introduction and Objectives
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Experimental Apparatus
2.2. Data Acquisition
2.3. Experimental Procedure
- KG1 was closed and the apparatus was filled up to a pre-determined piezometric head in the reservoir, either the High-level (HL) or the Low-level (LL) elevations in the reservoir.
- Water inflow was stopped to enable the system to reach quiescent conditions.
- KG2 was opened and later closed e to admit the atmospheric air into the air chamber.
- Data acquisition was initiated from the pressure transducers and video cameras.
- KG1 was quickly or gradually opened, as described below.
- The release of the air pocket through the vertical tower was monitored, which typically started 15 s after the total opening of KG1.
- Data acquisition was stopped and the tested condition was repeated (at least three times) to ensure consistency of the collected data. These repetitions are referred to as R1, R2, and R3.
2.4. Experimental Variables
- Two vertical shaft configurations: Configuration 1 used an 8.06 m long shaft with diameter D = 100 mm. Configuration 2 used a shaft with an initial diameter of D = 100 mm and length of 4.06 m followed by a segment with D = 50 mm with a length of 6.0 m.
- Two initial piezometric heads were imposed in the 500 L water reservoir: either m or m, measured from the invert of the horizontal pipe. These conditions are also referred to as HL and LL, respectively.
- Two air pocket volumes of ∀ = 25 L and 45 L, in both cases in atmospheric pressure.
- Two approaches for opening the KG1 valve and releasing the air phase: either a Quick (Q, within 0.5 s) or gradual (G).
2.5. Data Analysis
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Free Surface Water Results
- The results with = and shown in Figure 3 consistently exceeded the length of the vertical shaft (i.e., ), creating a geysering. The free surface rising had an early stage of gradual change, followed by a very steep rise in the last two seconds of the air pocket release. The results agree with past observations that reported that smaller-diameter shafts are more prone to geysering.
- The normalized free surface velocity values fluctuated significantly for the cases with = , as shown in Figure 2. The oscillation range was observed for the case with the largest air pocket volume and quick opening of the KG1 valve. In a few cases, the free surface velocities even briefly became negative. Over the air pocket release duration, the average normalized velocity was to , with a maximum of .
- By contrast, for = , the normalized free surface velocity remained positive, as shown in Figure 3. A first, longer phase of smaller free surface velocity is succeeded by a very fast air pocket release, with a normalized velocity that often exceeded 10, thus much faster than the conditions with larger shaft diameter.
- The measured presented in  for = and (conditions M1, M2, M4, and M5 in Table 4) are compared with the ones obtained in the present work for = 0.50. It can be noticed that the velocity values are systematically two to three times larger in the present experiment. While we attribute this to the geometry of the single dropshaft, another factor that could contribute to this difference is the vertical length of the tower in the present experiment. The vertical shaft presented in  had a length under 5 m, whereas it was over 10 m long in the present work.
- The measured presented in  for = (conditions M3 and M6 in Table 4) is compared with the ones obtained in the present work for = . Even though the value used in the present experiment for is much larger than the conditions in , the reported free surface displacement varied from to , which is in the range of the variation in the present study, from to .
- The from CFD modeling results shown in  for = and = (conditions M8, M10, and M11) are compared with the cases in the present study for the same . The normalized displacements measured in the CFD analysis varied from 0.20 to 0.45 depending on the air pocket volume. In the present work, for smaller air pocket volumes, varied from 0.42 to 0.60, and from 0.57 to 0.67 for larger pockets. It is important to reiterate that, as presented in , the vertical shaft did not release the entire air pocket, unlike the conditions in the present study.
3.2. Pressure Measurements
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|m||Horizontal pipe internal diameter|
|D||m||Vertical pipe internal diameter|
|g||m · s||Gravitational acceleration|
|m||Vertical shaft length|
|m · s||Water free surface velocity|
|-||Normalized water free surface velocity|
|m||Initial water free surface vertical coordinate|
|-||Normalized initial water free surface vertical coordinate based on|
|-||Normalized initial water free surface vertical coordinate based on D|
|-||Normalized water free surface displacement|
|-||Maximum normalized water free surface displacement|
|∀||m3||Air pocket volume|
|-||Normalized air pocket volume based on|
|-||Normalized air pocket volume based on the initial volume of water in dropshaft|
|CFD||Computational fluid dynamics|
|G||Gradual valve opening|
|HL||High water level|
|KG1, KG2||Knife gate valve|
|LL||Low water level|
|P1, P2, P3, P4||Pressure transducer|
|Q||Quick valve opening|
|R1, R2, R3||Repetition during experimental runs|
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Allasia, D.G.; Böck, L.É.; Vasconcelos, J.G.; Pinto, L.C.; Tassi, R.; Minetto, B.; Persch, C.G.; Pachaly, R.L. Experimental Study of Geysering in an Upstream Vertical Shaft. Water 2023, 15, 1740. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091740
Allasia DG, Böck LÉ, Vasconcelos JG, Pinto LC, Tassi R, Minetto B, Persch CG, Pachaly RL. Experimental Study of Geysering in an Upstream Vertical Shaft. Water. 2023; 15(9):1740. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091740Chicago/Turabian Style
Allasia, Daniel G., Liriane Élen Böck, Jose G. Vasconcelos, Leandro C. Pinto, Rutineia Tassi, Bruna Minetto, Cristiano G. Persch, and Robson L. Pachaly. 2023. "Experimental Study of Geysering in an Upstream Vertical Shaft" Water 15, no. 9: 1740. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091740