# Comprehensive Analysis of the Failure Potential of a Motorway Landslide in Dabu County, China

^{1}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Background

#### 2.1. Study Area

#### 2.2. Dabu Landslide

^{2}. The average landslide thickness is 16 m and the total volume of the metastable part is 13 × 10

^{4}m

^{3}. The relative height difference between the front and rear edges is 55 m.

## 3. Failure Potential of Dabu Landslide

#### 3.1. Electrical Resistivity Tomography Analysis

#### 3.2. Stability Analysis

_{i}is the weight of the soil slice i, C

_{i}is the cohesive force of the soil slice i, Φ

_{i}is the friction angle of the soil slice, L

_{i}is the length of the soil slice, α

_{i}is the dip angle of the soil slice, A is the earthquake acceleration,${r}_{u}$ is defined as the ratio of pore water pressure to upper load, ${R}_{Di}$ is the resistance force of the soil slice i, ${T}_{Di}$ is the sliding force of the soil slice I, ${R}_{n}$ and ${T}_{n}$ are total resistance force and sliding force.

#### 3.3. Landslide Potential Post-Failure Analysis

_{_0}is the yield shear stress at low shear rates, k is the flow consistency index, and n represents the flow behavior indices. In the model, the parameters ${\eta}_{0}$, ${\tau}_{0}$, and k need to be defined.

_{m}is the internal energy per unit mass.

_{0}mainly ranges from several Pa to hundreds of Pa, η

_{0}mainly ranges from a few tenths to several Pa.s, k mainly ranges from 0 to several tens, and τ

_{0}and η

_{0}increase with increasing solid volumetric concentration. Considering the solid volumetric concentration of the potential landslide can be different, a group of lower values of τ

_{0}= 0.2 Pa, η

_{0}= 0.4 Pa s, corresponding to solid volumetric concentration equaling 15% with high rheological mobility, a group of medium values of τ

_{0}= 1.2 Pa, η

_{0}= 1 Pa s, corresponding to solid volumetric concentration equaling 30% with medium rheological mobility, and a group of higher values of τ

_{0}= 100 Pa, η

_{0}= 10 Pa s, corresponding to solid volumetric concentration equaling 45% with low rheological mobility, were set for sensitivity analysis. As for the friction coefficient between the failure potential mass and the slip surface, a residual friction with a value of 0.36 (20°), which was obtained from the laboratory test, was adopted. The density of the sliding mass was set as 2000 kg/m

^{3}according to the laboratory test. Considering the main movement of the giant landslides usually lasts for tens of seconds [5,7], the simulation time was set as 150 s, which was enough for post-failure simulation. Figure 8 shows the initial state of the numerical model.

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**The study area: (

**a**) general location of the landslide; (

**b**) specific location and topographic condition of the landslide (the source data is based on SRTM with the resolution of 30 m).

**Figure 3.**Overview of the Dabu landslide based on remote sensing (the photograph of the waste dump was taken on 12 March 2016).

**Figure 4.**Deformation characteristics of Dabu landslide: (

**a**) drop head; (

**b**) crest crack; (

**c**) damaged part of the anchor frame; (

**d**) crest crack of the landslide.

**Figure 7.**Sliding phenomena of Dabu landslide from the investigation and drilling data: (

**a**) slip surface in the mudrock and the yellow line denotes the position of the slip surface; (

**b**) stria in the slip surface; (

**c**,

**d**) scratches on the soil samples in the red square.

**Figure 10.**Variation in the kinetic energy, frictional energy, and viscous energy under different rheological conditions ((

**a**–

**c**) represent kinetic energy, frictional energy, and viscous energy, respectively).

Material Type | Saturated State | Natural State | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Weight (kN/m ^{3}) | Cohesion C (kPa) | Friction φ (°) | Weight (kN/m ^{3}) | Cohesion C (kPa) | Friction φ (°) | |

Quaternary deluvial gravelly soil | 20 | 5 | 32 | 21 | 4 | 30 |

Mud rock | 19.5 | 14 | 15 | 20 | 13. | 14.1 |

Malmstone | 22 | 14 | 28.5 | 22.5 | 13 | 27 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Chen, S.; Hao, Y.; Zhang, W.; Sun, Y.; Liu, X.
Comprehensive Analysis of the Failure Potential of a Motorway Landslide in Dabu County, China. *Water* **2023**, *15*, 2675.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142675

**AMA Style**

Chen S, Hao Y, Zhang W, Sun Y, Liu X.
Comprehensive Analysis of the Failure Potential of a Motorway Landslide in Dabu County, China. *Water*. 2023; 15(14):2675.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142675

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Chen, Sheng, Yang Hao, Wencai Zhang, Ying Sun, and Xue Liu.
2023. "Comprehensive Analysis of the Failure Potential of a Motorway Landslide in Dabu County, China" *Water* 15, no. 14: 2675.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142675