# Stability Study of a Double-Row Steel Sheet Pile Cofferdam Structure on Soft Ground

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Project Overview and Scheme Design

#### 2.1. Project Overview

#### 2.2. Scheme Design

#### 2.2.1. Profile Design

#### 2.2.2. Steel Sheet Pile Section Design and Wave Force Value

## 3. Structural Stability Analysis

#### 3.1. Overall and Overturning Stability Test

#### 3.1.1. Overall Stability Analysis

#### 3.1.2. Overturning Stability Analysis

#### 3.2. Internal Force and Displacement Analysis

#### 3.3. Planar Finite Element Calculation of Construction Process

## 4. Conclusions

- (1)
- The calculation results show that the minimum safety factor for all working conditions is 1.744, and the minimum safety factor against overturning for all working conditions is 1.40. Both satisfy the code safety requirement of 1.35.
- (2)
- In the analysis of internal forces and displacements of the cofferdam structure, the calculation results of two typical sections revealed that under the water level drop condition, the maximum displacement on the outside of the right-line section at K6 + 598 is 34 mm. The maximum bending moment is 249.30 kN·m, and the maximum shear force is 266.66 kN. The displacements of the steel sheet pile inside and outside the cofferdam under each condition are minimal, and the internal forces are below the design sheet pile type bearing capacity. Therefore, the cofferdam structure is considered to be safe.
- (3)
- The influence of construction procedures on the internal force deformation of the sheet pile is found to be negligible, according to the calculation results for two typical sections at different steps in the construction process and under different water level conditions.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 5.**Cofferdam wave force distribution. (

**a**) Ten-year high wave thrust; (

**b**) ten-year high wave suction.

**Figure 9.**m-value discount result. (

**a**) Bagged sand; (

**b**) riprap; (

**c**) sand backfills; (

**d**) sand backfills between piles.

**Figure 13.**Finite element overall calculation model. Different colors represent different grid divisions.

Model W × H × T _{w} | Effective Width W _{1} (mm) | Effective Height H _{1} (mm) | Board Thickness t (mm) | Cross-Sectional Area per Meter of Sheet (cm^{2}) | Theoretical Weight per Meter of Sheet (kg/m) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

750 × 225 × 14.5 | 750 | 225 | 14.5 | 188 | 147.2 |

Steel Type | Design Value of Flexural Strength (MPa) | Design Value of Shear Strength (MPa) | Modulus of Elasticity (MPa) | Other (mm) |
---|---|---|---|---|

Q390BZ | 350 | 205 | 2.06 × 10^{5} | Thickness ≤ 16 |

Q345B | 295 | 170 | 2.06 × 10^{5} | Thickness ≤ 16 |

Name | Natural Density (g/cm ^{3}) | Compression Modulus (MPa) | Poisson’s Ratio | Cohesive Force (kPa) | Internal Friction Angle (°) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Sludge Ⅰ | 1.49 | 1.53 | 0.4 | 3.1 | 2.0 |

Sludge Ⅱ | 1.52 | 1.41 | 0.4 | 2.8 | 1.8 |

Clay | 1.97 | 6.29 | 0.3 | 32.2 | 8.7 |

Residual silty clay | 1.87 | 9.6 | 0.3 | 15.1 | 25.1 |

Completely weathered granite | 1.89 | 18 | 0.2 | 18.5 | 27.4 |

Sandy strongly weathered granite | 1.93 | 26 | 0.2 | 27.5 | 28.6 |

Fragmented strongly weathered granite | 2.55 | / | 0.2 | 3000 | 30 |

Moderately weathered granite | 2.62 | 26.2 | 0.2 | 15,000 | 41 |

Riprap filling | 2.1 | / | 0.2 | 0 | 38 |

Backfilling with medium coarse sand | 1.9 | / | 0.3 | 0 | 35 |

Bagging sand | 1.9 | / | 0.3 | 12.3 | 25.96 |

Mixing pile | 1.8 | / | 0.3 | 20 | 20 |

Concrete (retaining walls, support beams) | 2.4 | / | 0.15 | / | / |

Steel (steel tie rods, steel sheet pile cofferdams, steel supports) | 78.5 | / | 0.3 | / | / |

Attribute | Material Name | Elastic Modulus (MPa) | Poisson’s Ratio | Constitutive | Cohesive Force (kPa) | Internal Friction Angle (°) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Plane Strain (2D) | Sludge Ⅰ | 4.6 | 0.4 | Mohr–Coulomb | 3.1 | 2.0 |

Plane Strain (2D) | Sludge Ⅱ | 4.2 | 0.4 | Mohr–Coulomb | 2.8 | 1.8 |

Plane Strain (2D) | Clay | 20 | 0.3 | Mohr–Coulomb | 32.2 | 8.7 |

Plane Strain (2D) | Residual silty clay | 20 | 0.3 | Mohr–Coulomb | 15.1 | 25.1 |

Plane Strain (2D) | Completely weathered granite | 50 | 0.2 | Mohr–Coulomb | 18.5 | 27.4 |

Plane Strain (2D) | Sandy strongly weathered granite | 90 | 0.2 | Mohr–Coulomb | 27.5 | 28.6 |

Plane Strain (2D) | Fragmented strongly weathered granite | 200 | 0.2 | Mohr–Coulomb | 3000 | 30 |

Plane Strain (2D) | Moderately weathered granite | 500 | 0.2 | Mohr–Coulomb | 15,000 | 41 |

Plane Strain (2D) | Riprap filling | 100 | 0.2 | Mohr–Coulomb | 0 | 38 |

Plane Strain (2D) | Backfilling with medium coarse sand | 30 | 0.3 | Mohr–Coulomb | 0 | 35 |

Plane Strain (2D) | Bagging sand | 30 | 0.3 | Mohr–Coulomb | 12.3 | 25.96 |

Plane Strain (2D) | Mixing pile | 30 | 0.3 | Mohr–Coulomb | 20 | 20 |

Plane Strain (2D) | Concrete (retaining walls, support beams) | 30,000 | 0.15 | Linear Elasticity | / | / |

Beam/Truss (1D) | Steel (steel tie rods, steel sheet pile cofferdams, steel supports) | 200,000 | 0.3 | Linear Elasticity | / | / |

Number | Construction Step |
---|---|

1 | Calculation of initial crustal stress |

2 | Excavation of foundation trench |

3 | Overall replacement of medium-coarse sand to the original seabed surface |

4 | Driving inner and outer steel sheet piles |

5 | Outer row steel sheet pile outer sand rib soft row, bagged gravel, and bagged soil for roof protection |

6 | Install steel tie rods |

7 | Synchronous layered backfilling of medium to coarse sand in the weir body to an elevation of −2.0~+1.0 m |

8 | Backfilling inside the weir to an elevation of +1.0 m |

9 | Continue backfilling the dam body to an elevation of +3.0 m |

10 | Construction anti-pressure soil slope, inner soft soil reinforcement |

10 (a) | The water level inside the cofferdam is constant, while the water level outside the cofferdam drops sharply by 2.6 m + 10-year wave suction |

10 (b) | Design a high tide level on the inner side of the cofferdam, with a sudden drop in water level of 2.6 m and a 10-year wave suction force on the outer side of the cofferdam |

11 | The water level on the inner side of the cofferdam drops, the anti-pressure soil slope is protected by concrete bags, and the top of the cofferdam is supported by a retaining wall |

11 (a) | Considering 10-year high water level and 10-year wave thrust |

11 (b) | Considering 10-year low water level and 10-year wave suction |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Jiang, Y.; Guo, F.; Wang, W.; Yang, G.; Yue, J.; Huang, Y.
Stability Study of a Double-Row Steel Sheet Pile Cofferdam Structure on Soft Ground. *Water* **2023**, *15*, 2643.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142643

**AMA Style**

Jiang Y, Guo F, Wang W, Yang G, Yue J, Huang Y.
Stability Study of a Double-Row Steel Sheet Pile Cofferdam Structure on Soft Ground. *Water*. 2023; 15(14):2643.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142643

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Jiang, Yan, Fei Guo, Wenlong Wang, Guanghua Yang, Jinchao Yue, and Yibin Huang.
2023. "Stability Study of a Double-Row Steel Sheet Pile Cofferdam Structure on Soft Ground" *Water* 15, no. 14: 2643.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142643