The Impact of Climate Change and Soil Classification on Benzene Concentration in Groundwater Due to Surface Spills of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids
2.1. Study Area
2.2. Transport Model in the Unsaturated Zone
2.2.1. Model Parameterization
2.2.2. Model Validation
3. Results and Discussions
3.1. The Effect of Soil Properties and Solute Characteristics on Contaminant Transport
3.2. The Distribution Coefficient Role in Controlling Contaminant Transport
- The expected rise in temperature due to climate change can appreciably affect the soil moisture, which considers the first barrier to protect the groundwater from surface sources of contaminants.
- Diffusion coefficient of benzene in the soil is an important characteristic that is directly proportional to the temperature; therefore, it is a factor that led to increasing groundwater contamination.
- Sorption processes cause a delay in the benzene movement concerning water velocity, which is generally quantified by the coefficient of partition (or distribution), especially in loamy and sandy clay loam soils.
- An anticipated increase in earth’s average surface temperature by 4 °C due to climate change could lead to a rise in the level of groundwater pollution in the study area by 0.017 mg/L in loamy soil, 0.00046 mg/L in sandy clay loam soil, and 0.00023 mg/L in silt loam soil.
- Climate change may reduce the amount of benzene absorbed from (10 to 0.07)% in loamy soil, from (14 to 0.07)% in sandy clay loam soil, and from (60 to 53)% in silt loam soil.
- The impact of benzene in shallow groundwater aquifers is slight, demonstrating that any impact would take more than 200 days to be considerable.
- Groundwater aquifers that are only 100 cm away from the spill source are more threatened by contamination. As the depth of the groundwater increases, it is safe from surface sources pollutants.
- Construction of the well pad can substantially reduce the organic carbon in the soils, therefore, reducing its role in controlling the movement of pollutants.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Koc||Liquid–solid partitioning coefficient for soil ||mL/g||67|
|foc max||Fraction organic content ||−||0.0001|
|Co||Initial concentration ||mg/L||0.28|
|Kh||Henry’s constant at 18 °C ||−||0.167|
|Kh||Henry’s constant at 22 °C ||−||0.23|
|Qr||Residual water content loamy soil 1st scenario ||−||0.078|
|Qr||Residual water content loamy soil 2nd scenario ||−||0.0702|
|Qr||Residual water content sandy clay loam soil 1st scenario ||−||0.1|
|Qr||Residual water content sandy clay loam soil 2nd scenario ||−||0.09|
|Qr||Residual water content silt loam soil 1st scenario ||−||0.067|
|Qr||Residual water content silt loam soil 2nd scenario ||−||0.0603|
|i||Hydraulic gradient ||cm/cm||0.001|
|ax||Longitudinal dispersivity ||cm||10|
|Dw||Diffusion coefficient in free water at 18 °C ||cm2/day||0.747|
|Dw||Diffusion coefficient in free water at 22 °C ||cm2/day||0.847|
|Da||Diffusion coefficient in soil air at 18 °C ||cm2/day||7439|
|Da||Diffusion coefficient in soil air at 22 °C ||cm2/day||7629|
|ρ||Bulk density ||g/cm3||1.6|
|Type of Soil||Cmax of Benzene at 18 °C||Cmax of Benzene at 22 °C|
|Sandy clay loam||0.24335||0.26265|
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Almaliki, A.J.D.; Bashir, M.J.K.; Llamas Borrajo, J.F. The Impact of Climate Change and Soil Classification on Benzene Concentration in Groundwater Due to Surface Spills of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids. Water 2022, 14, 1202. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081202
Almaliki AJD, Bashir MJK, Llamas Borrajo JF. The Impact of Climate Change and Soil Classification on Benzene Concentration in Groundwater Due to Surface Spills of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids. Water. 2022; 14(8):1202. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081202Chicago/Turabian Style
Almaliki, Alaa Jasim Dakheel, Mohammed J. K. Bashir, and Juan F. Llamas Borrajo. 2022. "The Impact of Climate Change and Soil Classification on Benzene Concentration in Groundwater Due to Surface Spills of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids" Water 14, no. 8: 1202. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081202