Next Article in Journal
Sustainable Catchment-Wide Flood Management: A Review of the Terminology and Application of Sustainable Catchment Flood Management Techniques in the UK
Previous Article in Journal
The Impact of Climate Change and Soil Classification on Benzene Concentration in Groundwater Due to Surface Spills of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids
Review

Principles and Technical Application of Mixing Zones for Wastewater Discharges to Freshwater and Marine Environments

Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax Street East, Nelson 7010, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zhiliang Zhu and Chi-Wang Li
Water 2022, 14(8), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081201
Received: 31 January 2022 / Revised: 15 March 2022 / Accepted: 5 April 2022 / Published: 8 April 2022
A discharge mixing zone (DMZ) is a defined geographical area or volume of water in the receiving environment of a discharge where initial dilution of the effluent occurs and where exceedance of water quality criteria may be permitted. DMZs are essential to inform determination of discharge consent conditions and an important element of risk management frameworks to reduce any effects of the discharges on the environment and human health. In this review, we describe the principles and technical application of DMZs. We present an overview of the physical processes that govern the dispersion and dilution of wastewater discharges and the fate of contaminants in coastal environments and define key criteria for determining the size of DMZs. We summarize DMZ requirements in international legislation and guidance and exemplify their application to different types of discharges by means of case studies. The selected case studies illustrate different modelling tools for defining DMZs and different monitoring approaches to assess their effectiveness in achieving ecological and human health objectives. View Full-Text
Keywords: estuaries; zone of initial dilution; allocated impact zone; wastewater; modelling; water quality standards; water pollution control estuaries; zone of initial dilution; allocated impact zone; wastewater; modelling; water quality standards; water pollution control
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Campos, C.J.A.; Morrisey, D.J.; Barter, P. Principles and Technical Application of Mixing Zones for Wastewater Discharges to Freshwater and Marine Environments. Water 2022, 14, 1201. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081201

AMA Style

Campos CJA, Morrisey DJ, Barter P. Principles and Technical Application of Mixing Zones for Wastewater Discharges to Freshwater and Marine Environments. Water. 2022; 14(8):1201. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081201

Chicago/Turabian Style

Campos, Carlos J.A., Donald J. Morrisey, and Paul Barter. 2022. "Principles and Technical Application of Mixing Zones for Wastewater Discharges to Freshwater and Marine Environments" Water 14, no. 8: 1201. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081201

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop