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Article

Effect of Groundwater Extraction and Artificial Recharge on the Geophysical Footprints of Fresh Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Western Belgian Coastal Area

1
Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology, Department of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S8, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Department of Physics, KU Leuven Campus Kortrijk—KULAK, Etienne Sabbelaan 53, 8500 Kortrijk, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andrzej Wıtkowskı, Zbigniew Kabala, Aldo Fiori and Pankaj Kumar
Water 2022, 14(7), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071040
Received: 28 January 2022 / Revised: 17 March 2022 / Accepted: 23 March 2022 / Published: 25 March 2022
Human activities, such as managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and groundwater pumping, are influencing the natural groundwater flow in coastal areas. This might induce saltwater intrusion and impact fresh submarine groundwater discharge (FSGD). The use of resistivity methods (electrical resistivity tomography and continuous resistivity profiling) in coastal studies is very effective to investigate the salt–freshwater distribution, but it can be difficult to interpret quantitatively. In this study, the Western Belgian coast is investigated with resistivity methods, and image appraisal tools are systematically used to quantitatively interpret inversion models. Synthetic resistivity models, which reflect the existing situation at the Western Belgian coast, are first created and assessed quantitatively by means of the model resolution matrix, cumulative sensitivity matrix, and depth of investigation index. They reveal that no quantitative interpretation is possible of the FSGD, although lateral qualitative changes can be deduced from the inversion models. The field data show freshwater outflow from the lower beach to below the low water line, and they indicate that MAR has a positive impact on FSGD, while groundwater extraction reduces the outflow of freshwater to the North Sea. A comparison with existing groundwater models indicates their inability to reproduce the actual FSGD footprints. View Full-Text
Keywords: submarine groundwater discharge; continuous resistivity profiling; electrical resistivity tomography; managed aquifer recharge submarine groundwater discharge; continuous resistivity profiling; electrical resistivity tomography; managed aquifer recharge
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paepen, M.; Deleersnyder, W.; De Latte, S.; Walraevens, K.; Hermans, T. Effect of Groundwater Extraction and Artificial Recharge on the Geophysical Footprints of Fresh Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Western Belgian Coastal Area. Water 2022, 14, 1040. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071040

AMA Style

Paepen M, Deleersnyder W, De Latte S, Walraevens K, Hermans T. Effect of Groundwater Extraction and Artificial Recharge on the Geophysical Footprints of Fresh Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Western Belgian Coastal Area. Water. 2022; 14(7):1040. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071040

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paepen, Marieke, Wouter Deleersnyder, Sybren De Latte, Kristine Walraevens, and Thomas Hermans. 2022. "Effect of Groundwater Extraction and Artificial Recharge on the Geophysical Footprints of Fresh Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Western Belgian Coastal Area" Water 14, no. 7: 1040. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071040

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