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Article

Water Procurement Time and Its Implications for Household Water Demand—Insights from a Water Diary Study in Five Informal Settlements of Pune, India

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Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research—UFZ, Permoser Str. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
2
Faculty of Economics and Business Management, Institute of Infrastructure and Resources Management, Leipzig University, Grimmaische Str. 12, 04109 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ataur Rahman
Water 2022, 14(7), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071009
Received: 4 February 2022 / Revised: 7 March 2022 / Accepted: 18 March 2022 / Published: 22 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
Many private households spend considerable amounts of time accessing water, for instance by walking to and queuing at public access points, or by filling storage vessels at taps with low flow rates. This time has an opportunity cost, which can be substantial and may impact which water services and quantities of water households demand. In a novel form of diary study, we gathered detailed water consumption and time use data from 50 households in five informal settlements of the Indian metropolis Pune, accompanied by a household survey and in-depth interviews. With the data, we characterize water collection behaviors and assign monetary values to water procurement time. We statistically analyze the effects of time cost on consumed quantities in several two-level mixed-effect models. Household members in our sample spend up to several hours each day filling storage vessels, even if a private connection to the piped network is available. Average time cost amounted to the equivalent of 4.23–13.81% of monthly household cash income. Our analyses indicate that procurement time reduces quantitative water demand in a significant way. The households incurring the highest per-unit time cost consumed water quantities below minimum levels recommended for human health. This substantiates that time costs can impede access to water and are a relevant issue for water management and policy. View Full-Text
Keywords: access to water; household water demand; time cost access to water; household water demand; time cost
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Figure 1

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.5549665
    Link: https://zenodo.org/record/5549665#.YiXQvt8xmUk
    Description: Household Profiles and Water Diary Data from Five Informal Settlements in Pune, India. The dataset includes excerpts of raw data from a household profile survey and a water diary experiment carried out in January and June of 2020 in Pune, Maharashtra, India.
MDPI and ACS Style

Zozmann, H.; Klassert, C.; Klauer, B.; Gawel, E. Water Procurement Time and Its Implications for Household Water Demand—Insights from a Water Diary Study in Five Informal Settlements of Pune, India. Water 2022, 14, 1009. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071009

AMA Style

Zozmann H, Klassert C, Klauer B, Gawel E. Water Procurement Time and Its Implications for Household Water Demand—Insights from a Water Diary Study in Five Informal Settlements of Pune, India. Water. 2022; 14(7):1009. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071009

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zozmann, Heinrich, Christian Klassert, Bernd Klauer, and Erik Gawel. 2022. "Water Procurement Time and Its Implications for Household Water Demand—Insights from a Water Diary Study in Five Informal Settlements of Pune, India" Water 14, no. 7: 1009. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071009

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