Impact of Forest Conversion to Agriculture on Hydrologic Regime in the Large Basin in Vietnam
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area
2.2. Land Use/Land Cover Change in the Study Area
2.3. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model
- DEM. The DEM of the basin was derived from SRTM30 data that have been published by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (Figure 1).
- Soil properties. We used the soil map of the world developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.
- Land use and land cover data. The land use maps of 1994 and 2005 with seven land cover classes, dense forest, sparse forest/Shrub, perennial/orchard, crop land, built-up/residential, marsh/grasses, and water body, which were classified from the Landsat imagery, were used (Figure 2) . To assess the performance of SWAT under LUCC, the daily hydrographs for the two land use maps 1994 and 2005 with the same climatic conditions and model parameters were simulated.
- Meteorological data. Data for daily precipitation (mm), maximum and minimum temperatures (°C), solar radiation (Wm−2), wind speed (ms−1), and relative humidity (%) were provided by the provincial department of natural resources and environment (DONRE). The study area was located in a tropical humid zone receiving southwest monsoon; 80% of the annual rainfall occurred during the rainy season (May–October) while the dry season (November–April) received the remaining rainfall. As UDNB extends from the high hills to the low plain area, temperature and precipitation vary significantly (Figure 3).
- Streamflow data. Daily streamflow data (m3/s) at Ta Lai station from 1 January 1987 to 31 December 2010 were collected and data at Ta Pao station from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2010 (Figure 1) were compared with the modeled surface flow.
2.4. Model Setup and Performance Evaluation
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Parameter||Description of Parameter||Range||Best Simulation|
|Dong Nai||La Nga|
|CN2.mgt||Initial SCS CN II value||−0.5–0.5||−0.312||−0.098|
|CH_K2.rte||Channel effective hydraulic conductivity||−0.01–500||219.299||35.765|
|ALPHA_BF.gw||Baseflow alpha factor||0–1||1.203||1.003|
|SOL_AWC.sol||Available water capacity||−0.5–0.5||0.942||0.559|
|GWQMN.gw||Threshold water depth in the shallow aquifer for flow||0–5000||1654||2021|
|REVAPMN.gw||Threshold water depth in the shallow aquifer for “revap”||0–1000||925||925|
|GW_REVAP.gw||Groundwater ‘revap’ coefficient||0.02–0.2||0.288||0.072|
|SOL_K.sol||Saturated hydraulic conductivity||−0.5–0.5||0.220||0.220|
|Very good||0.75 < NSE ≤ 1.00||PBIAS < ±10.00||0.00 ≤ RSR ≤ 0.50|
|Good||0.65 < NSE ≤ 0.75||10.00 ≤ PBIAS < ±15.00||0.50 < RSR ≤ 0.60|
|Satisfactory||0.50 < NSE ≤ 0.65||15.00 ≤ PBIAS < ±25.00||0.60 < RSR ≤ 0.70|
|Unstatisfactory||NSE ≤ 0.50||PBIAS ≥ ±25.00||RSR > 0.70|
|Station||Calibration (1980/1987–1994)||Validation (1995–2010)|
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Truong, N.C.Q.; Khoi, D.N.; Nguyen, H.Q.; Kondoh, A. Impact of Forest Conversion to Agriculture on Hydrologic Regime in the Large Basin in Vietnam. Water 2022, 14, 854. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060854
Truong NCQ, Khoi DN, Nguyen HQ, Kondoh A. Impact of Forest Conversion to Agriculture on Hydrologic Regime in the Large Basin in Vietnam. Water. 2022; 14(6):854. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060854Chicago/Turabian Style
Truong, Nguyen Cung Que, Dao Nguyen Khoi, Hong Quan Nguyen, and Akihiko Kondoh. 2022. "Impact of Forest Conversion to Agriculture on Hydrologic Regime in the Large Basin in Vietnam" Water 14, no. 6: 854. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060854