# Effects of Crushing Characteristics on Rheological Characteristics of Particle Systems

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods of Ring-Shear Test

## 3. Experimental Results and Analysis

#### 3.1. Quantitative Description of Fracture Characteristics of the Different Particle Systems

#### 3.2. Experimental Results on the Compression Characteristics of the Particle System

#### 3.3. Stress Ratios of the Different Particle Systems

## 4. Discussion of Shear Velocities

## 5. Conclusions

- (1)
- The shear rate has a greater effect on the degree of system fragmentation, with a higher shear rate resulting in a higher degree of system fragmentation.
- (2)
- Differences in granular materials result in large differences in the trend of the volume change during the shearing process. The unbroken system is slightly dilatant, whereas the breakable system has dilatancy in the initial stage of shearing and then large shear shrinkage. Particles that are more fragile have greater shear shrinkage. There is a nonlinear negative relation between the volume compression of the system and the degree of fragmentation.
- (3)
- The particle crushing effect increases the system stress ratio to a certain extent. In the unbroken system, the mean value of the stress ratio is negatively correlated with the shear speed, whereas in the breakable system, the breaking effect and the shear speed effect cancel each other out, and the mean stress ratio thus remains relatively stable.
- (4)
- The particle crushing effect reduces the fluctuation in the system stress ratio. However, the fluctuation in the initial stress ratio increases as the particles are more easily broken.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**The basic condition of the ring-shear test. (

**a**) Structure of GCTS ring-shear apparatus; (

**b**) initial photos of experimental materials; (

**c**) partition filling method.

**Figure 2.**Percentage mass contents of particles of different size after shear crushing: (

**a**) unbroken particles in quartz sand, (

**b**) unbroken particles in calcareous sand, (

**c**) partially broken particles in quartz sand, (

**d**) partially broken particles in calcareous sand, (

**e**) completely broken particles in quartz sand, and (

**f**) completely broken particles in calcareous sand.

**Figure 3.**Vertical displacement versus shear displacement of glass beads, quartz sand, and calcareous sand at the same shear velocity.

**Figure 4.**Degree of particle breakage versus system compression for (

**a**) calcareous sand and (

**b**) quartz sand.

**Figure 6.**Relation of the stress ratio and the degree of particle breakage for different shear velocities: (

**a**) quartz sand and (

**b**) calcareous sand.

**Figure 7.**Relation of the variance of the stress ratio and the degree of particle breakage for different particle systems: (

**a**) quartz sand and (

**b**) calcareous sand.

**Figure 8.**Relationship between the shear rate and stress ratio for the different particle systems: (

**a**) glass beads, (

**b**) quartz sand and calcareous sand.

**Figure 9.**Relation of the variance of the stress ratio and the shear rate for different particle systems.

Material | Shear Velocity | Shear Displacement |
---|---|---|

Quartz sand | 5°/min | 45°–90°–180°–360°–720° |

10°/min | 45°–90°–180°–360°–720° | |

30°/min | 45°–90°–180°–360°–720° | |

60°/min | 45°–90°–180°–360°–720° | |

90°/min | 45°–90°–180°–360°–720° | |

Calcareous sand | 5°/min | 45°–180°–720° |

10°/min | 45°–180°–720° | |

30°/min | 45°–180°–720° | |

60°/min | 45°–180°–720° | |

90°/min | 45°–180°–720° | |

Glass beads | 5°/min | 720° |

10°/min | 720° | |

30°/min | 720° | |

60°/min | 720° | |

90°/min | 720° |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Huang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wang, S.
Effects of Crushing Characteristics on Rheological Characteristics of Particle Systems. *Water* **2022**, *14*, 532.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040532

**AMA Style**

Huang Y, Wang Y, Wang S.
Effects of Crushing Characteristics on Rheological Characteristics of Particle Systems. *Water*. 2022; 14(4):532.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040532

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Huang, Yu, Yi’an Wang, and Suran Wang.
2022. "Effects of Crushing Characteristics on Rheological Characteristics of Particle Systems" *Water* 14, no. 4: 532.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040532