# Analysis of the Invasion of Acetes into the Water Intake of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Base

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methods

#### 2.1. Numerical Model

_{x}and m

_{y}are the coordinate transformation factors, m = m

_{x}m

_{y}; H = h + ζ (H is the instantaneous total water depth, ζ is the water surface elevation and h is the distance between average sea level and the sea floor); A

_{v}is the vertical turbulent eddy viscosity coefficient; p is the relative hydrostatic pressure; f is the Coriolis force coefficient; and Q

_{u}and Q

_{v}are the power source-sink terms.

#### 2.2. Computational Domain, Boundary Conditions and Cases

^{3}/s both at the intake and the outlet. The effects of inland river confluence on the study area were neglected because most of the rivers are located north of computational domain and were far away from the outlet.

_{0}, was set as 0.02 m and the time step was 6.9 s. Tides are related to the lunar calendar, as tide is mainly attributed to the moon’s circulation movement. All calendars referred to lunar calendar. Under normal weather conditions, the nighttime duration in Daya Bay is approximately 13 h during November. Five cases with different nighttime durations (12 h, 13 h, 14 h, 15 h, and 16 h) were investigated, considering that cloudy and rainy weather may decrease light intensity.

#### 2.3. Acetes Migration

#### 2.4. Biological Residual Current

_{M}as follows:

_{1}and t

_{2}are the beginning and ending times of biological transport respectively; x and y are the coordinates; $\stackrel{\rightharpoonup}{{u}_{acete}}$ is the component of flow rate in the x direction (east–west) and y direction (north–south) at time t; the daytime migration velocity of Acetes is $\stackrel{\rightharpoonup}{{u}_{acete}}$= 0 and the nighttime migration velocity is equal to the water velocity, i.e., $\stackrel{\rightharpoonup}{{u}_{acete}}$ = (u,v).

#### 2.5. Lagrange Particle-Tracking Method

#### 2.6. Validation of Hydrodynamic Property

#### 2.6.1. Hydrodynamic Property

#### 2.6.2. Acetes Invasion

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Flow Field Characteristics

#### 3.2. Characteristics of the Biological Residual Current of Acetes

#### 3.3. Analysis of the Migration Pathways of Invasive Acetes

#### 3.4. Timing Analysis of the Acetes Invasion

#### 3.5. Lagrangian Particle Analysis

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Fu, X.C.; Du, F.L.; Pu, X.; Wang, X.; Han, F. Analysis on Critical Factors of Marine Organism Impacts on Water Intake Safety at Nuclear Power Plants. J. Nucl. Eng. Radiat. Sci.
**2020**, 6, 041101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Guoping, R. Analysis of the causes of water intake blockage in nuclear power plants and strategies to cope with it. Nucl. Power Eng.
**2015**, 36, 151–154. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar] - Sha, C.; Yang, J.; Zhang, W.J.; Zhang, R.Y.; Bai, W. Investigation and analysis of sea life monitoring technology for nuclear power plant intake in China. Water Supply Drain.
**2020**, 56, 13–16. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar] - Zeng, L.; Chen, G.; Wang, T.; Yang, B.; Yu, J.; Liao, X.; Huang, H. Acoustic detection and analysis of Acetes chinensis in the adjacent waters of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. J. Fish. Sci. China
**2019**, 6, 1029–1039. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar] - Shih, R. The migratory distribution and generation alternation of the Acetes chinensis Hansen in the coastal waters of southern Zhejiang. East China Sea Mar.
**1986**, 4, 56–61. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar] - Ejigu, M.T. Overview of water quality modeling. Cogent Eng.
**2021**, 8, 1891711. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Wang, Z.Y.; Li, F.Q.; Chen, C.J. Water quality analysis and prediction of the Qiantang River water diversion project. J. Hydropower
**2005**, 4, 47–51. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar] - Lopes, J.F.; Silva, C.I.; Cardoso, A.C. Validation of a water quality model for the Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal. Environ. Modell. Softw.
**2008**, 23, 479–494. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Martin; J. L. Application of Two-Dimensional Water Quality Model. J. Environ. Eng.
**1988**, 114, 317–336. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zheng, L.; Chen, C.; Merryl, A.; Liu, H. A modeling study of the Satilla River estuary, Georgia. II: Suspended sediment. Estuaries Coasts
**2003**, 26, 670–679. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Mellor, G.L.; Yamada, T. Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Geophys.
**1982**, 20, 851–875. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Hamrick, J.M. A Three-Dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code: Theoretical and Computational Aspect; The College of William and Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science: Gloucester Point, VA, USA, 1992. [Google Scholar]
- Alarcon, V.J.; Linhoss, A.C.; Kelble, C.R.; Mickle, P.F.; Sanchez-Banda, G.F.; Mardonez-Meza, F.E.; Bishop, J.; Ashby, S.L. Coastal inundation under concurrent mean and extreme sea-level rise in Coral Gables, Florida, USA. Nat. Hazards
**2022**, 111, 2933–2962. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Chen, X.; Zhu, L.; Zhang, H. Numerical simulation of summer circulation in the East China Sea and its application in estimating the sources of red tides in the Yangtze River estuary and adjacent sea areas. J. Hydrodyn. Ser. B
**2007**, 19, 272–281. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Kumar, S.; Kumar, D.; Abbasbandy, S.; Rashidi, M.M. Analytical solution of fractional Navier-Stokes equation byusing modifed Laplace decomposition method. Ain Shams Eng. J.
**2014**, 5, 569–574. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Johnson, D.R.; Perry, H.M.; Burke, W.D. Developing jellyfish strategy hypotheses using circulation models. Hydrobiologia
**2001**, 451, 213–221. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - North, E.W.; Schlag, Z.; Hood, R.R.; Li, M.; Zhong, L.; Gross, T.; Kennedy, V.S. Vertical swimming behavior influences the dispersal of simulated oyster larvae in a coupled particle-tracking and hydrodynamic model of Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
**2008**, 359, 99–115. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Hofmann, E.E.; Klinck, J.M.; Locarnini, R.A.; Fach, B.; Murphy, E. Krill transport in the Scotia Sea and environs. Antarct. Sci.
**1998**, 10, 406–415. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Fach, B.A.; Hofmann, E.E.; Murphy, E.J. Transport of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) across the Scotia Sea. Part II: Krill growth and survival. Deep. Sea Res. Part I
**2006**, 53, 1011–1043. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Wu, W.; Yan, I.H.; Song, D.H. Study of tidal dynamics in Daya Bay—I. Observational analysis and numerical simulation of the tidal wave system. J. Trop. Oceanogr.
**2017**, 36, 34–45. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar] - Jiang, R.; Guo, B.T. Relationship between variability of coastal shrimp production and meteorological factors in Fujian. Mar. Bull.
**1983**, 2, 69–74. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar] - Wu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Hou, Q.; Jiao, F.; Sun, G. Empirical feedback on incidents of blockage of water intake systems in nuclear power plants by marine foreign bodies. Nucl. Saf.
**2017**, 16, 26–32. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar] - Li, Y.; Acharya, K.; Yu, Z. Modeling impacts of Yangtze River water transfer on water ages in Lake Taihu, China. Ecol. Eng.
**2011**, 37, 325–334. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Hua, L. Response of algae growth to pollution reduction of drainage basin based on EFDC model for channel reservoirs: A case of Changtan Reservoir, Guangdong Province. J. Lake Sci.
**2015**, 27, 811–818. [Google Scholar] - Kim, N.S.; Kang, H.; Kwon, M.S.; Jang, H.-S.; Kim, J.G. Comparison of Seawater Exchange Rate of Small Scale Inner Bays within Jinhae Bay. J. Korean Soc. Mar. Environ. Energy
**2016**, 19, 74–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Hongzhou, X.U.; Lin, J.; Shen, J.; Dynamics, W.D. Wind impact on pollutant transport in a shallow estuary. Acta Oceanol. Sin.
**2008**, 3, 147–160. [Google Scholar] - Jung, J.; Nam, J.; Kim, J.; Bae, Y.H.; Kim, H.S. Estimation of Temperature Recovery Distance and the Influence of Heat Pump Discharge on Fluvial Ecosystems. Water
**2020**, 12, 949. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Shin, B.S.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, J.H.; Baek, S.-H. Feasibility Study for Tidal Power Plant Site in Garolim Bay Using EFDC Model. J. Korean Soc. Coast. Ocean. Eng.
**2011**, 23, 489–495. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Chen, L.J.; Yang, F.; Zhong, X.M.; Song, D.D.; Li, G.D.; Kang, C.J.; Xiong, E. Advances in the life history of the Chinese shrimp, Myrmecophthalmus chinensis. J. Shanghai Ocean. Univ.
**2022**, 31, 1032–1040. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar] - Sun, Z.Y.; Chen, Z.Z.; Yang, L.Q.; Zhu, J. Seasonal variation of tidal currents and residual currents in Daya Bay and surrounding sea areas. J. Xiamen Univ. (Nat. Sci. Ed.)
**2020**, 59, 278–286. [Google Scholar] - Yang, G.B. Characteristics of tidal movement in the Daya Bay marine area. People’s Pearl River
**2001**, 22, 30–32. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar] - Jiang, W.; Feng, S. 3D analytical solution to the tidally induced Lagrangian residual current equations in a narrow bay. Ocean Dyn.
**2014**, 64, 1073–1091. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

**Figure 5.**Tidal current field in Daya Bay: velocity distributions of (

**a**) surface flow and (

**b**) bottom flow during fastest high tide; velocity distribution of (

**c**) surface flow and (

**d**) bottom flow during fastest low tide.

**Figure 6.**Velocity distribution in vertical direction at each characteristic point: (

**a**) typical location to show velocity; (

**b**) magnitude of vertical stratified flow velocity at point A1; (

**c**) velocity at point A2; (

**d**) velocity at point A3. (Condition 1: the moment when the rising tide flows fastest; Condition 2: the moment when the falling tide flows fastest; Condition 3: the moment when the tide is at its lowest and the water level is stable; Condition 4: the moment when the tide is at its highest and the water level is stable).

**Figure 7.**Maximal residual velocity field near water intake for various cases: (

**a**) 12 h nighttime; (

**b**) 13 h nighttime; (

**c**) 14 h nighttime; (

**d**) 15 h nighttime; and (

**e**) 16 h nighttime.

**Figure 8.**Residual flow field of inflow periods: (

**a**) 12 h night-migration period; (

**b**) 13 h night-migration period; (

**c**) 14 h night-migration period; (

**d**) 15 h night-migration period; (

**e**) 16 h night-migration period; (

**f**) residual flow field of outflow period with a 14 h night-migration period.

**Figure 10.**Invasion paths of Acetes with different night migration time: (

**a**) 12 h, 13 h, 24 h; (

**b**) 14 h, 15 h, and 16 h of night-migration times.

Date | Description of the Event |
---|---|

10 January 2015 | In this accident, works cleaned approximate 1.3 tonnes of Acetes in the drum net backwash drain at the nuclear power site’s Ling’ao 2 unit. Units 1 and 2 had to operate with lower power. |

9 January 2016 | In the circulating water filtration system, the number of Acetes detected was much higher than the tolerance level of safety design. Units 1 and 2 had to be shut down. |

12 h | 13 h | 14 h | 15 h | 16 h | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Calculation time/h | 18:00–6:00 (The following day) | 18:00–7:00 (The following day) | 17:00–7:00 (The following day) | 16:00–7:00 (The following day) | 16:00–8:00 (The following day) |

Date of entry into the stream | 4–14 November | 5–14 November | 5–15 November | 5–14 November | 5–14 November |

Duration of inflow days/d | 10 | 9 | 10 | 9 | 9 |

Date of departure | 11.14–11.20 | 11.14–11.20 | 11.15–11.20 | 11.14–11.20 | 11.14–11.20 |

Duration of outflow days/d | 6 | 6 | 5 | 6 | 6 |

Date of peak residual flow rate | 11.09 | 11.10 | 11.09 | 11.09 | 11.10 |

L0 | L1 | L2 | L3 | L4 | L5 | L6 | L7 | L8 | L9 | L10 | L11 | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Average biological residual current rate/cm·s^{−1} | 12 h | 2.89 | 2.80 | 2.46 | 1.86 | 1.40 | 1.10 | 0.95 | 1.09 | 1.46 | 1.64 | 1.90 | 3.44 |

13 h | 2.92 | 2.74 | 2.31 | 1.76 | 1.35 | 1.08 | 0.93 | 1.05 | 1.39 | 1.58 | 1.97 | 3.50 | |

14 h | 3.51 | 3.39 | 2.83 | 2.15 | 1.66 | 1.33 | 1.13 | 1.28 | 1.68 | 1.75 | 2.47 | 3.53 | |

15 h | 3.57 | 3.35 | 2.72 | 2.09 | 1.63 | 1.31 | 1.12 | 1.26 | 1.62 | 1.70 | 1.95 | 3.50 | |

16 h | 3.54 | 3.28 | 2.62 | 2.02 | 1.59 | 1.29 | 1.10 | 1.24 | 1.58 | 1.67 | 1.93 | 3.49 |

Nocturnal Migration Hours | Average Migration Speed through the Segments/km·d^{−1} | Duration of the Inflow Cycle/d | Determining Whether an Incoming Flow Period Can Reach Section C(Y/N) | Through Various Periods/d | Time of Arrival at the Water Intake/d | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

A | B | C | A | B | C | ||||

12 h | 0.91 | 0.52 | 0.99 | 10 | N | 2.6 | >15 | 4.1 | >20 |

13 h | 0.99 | 0.54 | 1.03 | 9 | N | 2.4 | >15 | 3.0 | >20 |

14 h | 1.18 | 0.71 | 1.37 | 10 | Y | 1.9 | 5.8 | 3.0 | 10.7 |

15 h | 1.18 | 0.75 | 1.44 | 9 | Y | 2.0 | 5.5 | 2.9 | 10.4 |

16 h | 1.24 | 0.78 | 1.50 | 9 | Y | 1.9 | 5.3 | 2.8 | 9.9 |

12 h | 13 h | 14 h | 15 h | 16 h | 24 h | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Acetes invasion time/d | >15 | >15 | 8 | 7 | 6.5 | 12 |

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. |

© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Li, X.; Yang, L.; Ren, H.; Liu, Z.; Jia, Z.
Analysis of the Invasion of Acetes into the Water Intake of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Base. *Water* **2022**, *14*, 3741.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223741

**AMA Style**

Li X, Yang L, Ren H, Liu Z, Jia Z.
Analysis of the Invasion of Acetes into the Water Intake of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Base. *Water*. 2022; 14(22):3741.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223741

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Li, Xinghao, Lin Yang, Huatang Ren, Zhaowei Liu, and Zeyu Jia.
2022. "Analysis of the Invasion of Acetes into the Water Intake of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Base" *Water* 14, no. 22: 3741.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223741