# Analysis of the Invasion of Acetes into the Water Intake of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Base

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methods

#### 2.1. Numerical Model

_{x}and m

_{y}are the coordinate transformation factors, m = m

_{x}m

_{y}; H = h + ζ (H is the instantaneous total water depth, ζ is the water surface elevation and h is the distance between average sea level and the sea floor); A

_{v}is the vertical turbulent eddy viscosity coefficient; p is the relative hydrostatic pressure; f is the Coriolis force coefficient; and Q

_{u}and Q

_{v}are the power source-sink terms.

#### 2.2. Computational Domain, Boundary Conditions and Cases

^{3}/s both at the intake and the outlet. The effects of inland river confluence on the study area were neglected because most of the rivers are located north of computational domain and were far away from the outlet.

_{0}, was set as 0.02 m and the time step was 6.9 s. Tides are related to the lunar calendar, as tide is mainly attributed to the moon’s circulation movement. All calendars referred to lunar calendar. Under normal weather conditions, the nighttime duration in Daya Bay is approximately 13 h during November. Five cases with different nighttime durations (12 h, 13 h, 14 h, 15 h, and 16 h) were investigated, considering that cloudy and rainy weather may decrease light intensity.

#### 2.3. Acetes Migration

#### 2.4. Biological Residual Current

_{M}as follows:

_{1}and t

_{2}are the beginning and ending times of biological transport respectively; x and y are the coordinates; $\stackrel{\rightharpoonup}{{u}_{acete}}$ is the component of flow rate in the x direction (east–west) and y direction (north–south) at time t; the daytime migration velocity of Acetes is $\stackrel{\rightharpoonup}{{u}_{acete}}$= 0 and the nighttime migration velocity is equal to the water velocity, i.e., $\stackrel{\rightharpoonup}{{u}_{acete}}$ = (u,v).

#### 2.5. Lagrange Particle-Tracking Method

#### 2.6. Validation of Hydrodynamic Property

#### 2.6.1. Hydrodynamic Property

#### 2.6.2. Acetes Invasion

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Flow Field Characteristics

#### 3.2. Characteristics of the Biological Residual Current of Acetes

#### 3.3. Analysis of the Migration Pathways of Invasive Acetes

#### 3.4. Timing Analysis of the Acetes Invasion

#### 3.5. Lagrangian Particle Analysis

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 5.**Tidal current field in Daya Bay: velocity distributions of (

**a**) surface flow and (

**b**) bottom flow during fastest high tide; velocity distribution of (

**c**) surface flow and (

**d**) bottom flow during fastest low tide.

**Figure 6.**Velocity distribution in vertical direction at each characteristic point: (

**a**) typical location to show velocity; (

**b**) magnitude of vertical stratified flow velocity at point A1; (

**c**) velocity at point A2; (

**d**) velocity at point A3. (Condition 1: the moment when the rising tide flows fastest; Condition 2: the moment when the falling tide flows fastest; Condition 3: the moment when the tide is at its lowest and the water level is stable; Condition 4: the moment when the tide is at its highest and the water level is stable).

**Figure 7.**Maximal residual velocity field near water intake for various cases: (

**a**) 12 h nighttime; (

**b**) 13 h nighttime; (

**c**) 14 h nighttime; (

**d**) 15 h nighttime; and (

**e**) 16 h nighttime.

**Figure 8.**Residual flow field of inflow periods: (

**a**) 12 h night-migration period; (

**b**) 13 h night-migration period; (

**c**) 14 h night-migration period; (

**d**) 15 h night-migration period; (

**e**) 16 h night-migration period; (

**f**) residual flow field of outflow period with a 14 h night-migration period.

**Figure 10.**Invasion paths of Acetes with different night migration time: (

**a**) 12 h, 13 h, 24 h; (

**b**) 14 h, 15 h, and 16 h of night-migration times.

Date | Description of the Event |
---|---|

10 January 2015 | In this accident, works cleaned approximate 1.3 tonnes of Acetes in the drum net backwash drain at the nuclear power site’s Ling’ao 2 unit. Units 1 and 2 had to operate with lower power. |

9 January 2016 | In the circulating water filtration system, the number of Acetes detected was much higher than the tolerance level of safety design. Units 1 and 2 had to be shut down. |

12 h | 13 h | 14 h | 15 h | 16 h | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Calculation time/h | 18:00–6:00 (The following day) | 18:00–7:00 (The following day) | 17:00–7:00 (The following day) | 16:00–7:00 (The following day) | 16:00–8:00 (The following day) |

Date of entry into the stream | 4–14 November | 5–14 November | 5–15 November | 5–14 November | 5–14 November |

Duration of inflow days/d | 10 | 9 | 10 | 9 | 9 |

Date of departure | 11.14–11.20 | 11.14–11.20 | 11.15–11.20 | 11.14–11.20 | 11.14–11.20 |

Duration of outflow days/d | 6 | 6 | 5 | 6 | 6 |

Date of peak residual flow rate | 11.09 | 11.10 | 11.09 | 11.09 | 11.10 |

L0 | L1 | L2 | L3 | L4 | L5 | L6 | L7 | L8 | L9 | L10 | L11 | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Average biological residual current rate/cm·s^{−1} | 12 h | 2.89 | 2.80 | 2.46 | 1.86 | 1.40 | 1.10 | 0.95 | 1.09 | 1.46 | 1.64 | 1.90 | 3.44 |

13 h | 2.92 | 2.74 | 2.31 | 1.76 | 1.35 | 1.08 | 0.93 | 1.05 | 1.39 | 1.58 | 1.97 | 3.50 | |

14 h | 3.51 | 3.39 | 2.83 | 2.15 | 1.66 | 1.33 | 1.13 | 1.28 | 1.68 | 1.75 | 2.47 | 3.53 | |

15 h | 3.57 | 3.35 | 2.72 | 2.09 | 1.63 | 1.31 | 1.12 | 1.26 | 1.62 | 1.70 | 1.95 | 3.50 | |

16 h | 3.54 | 3.28 | 2.62 | 2.02 | 1.59 | 1.29 | 1.10 | 1.24 | 1.58 | 1.67 | 1.93 | 3.49 |

Nocturnal Migration Hours | Average Migration Speed through the Segments/km·d^{−1} | Duration of the Inflow Cycle/d | Determining Whether an Incoming Flow Period Can Reach Section C(Y/N) | Through Various Periods/d | Time of Arrival at the Water Intake/d | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

A | B | C | A | B | C | ||||

12 h | 0.91 | 0.52 | 0.99 | 10 | N | 2.6 | >15 | 4.1 | >20 |

13 h | 0.99 | 0.54 | 1.03 | 9 | N | 2.4 | >15 | 3.0 | >20 |

14 h | 1.18 | 0.71 | 1.37 | 10 | Y | 1.9 | 5.8 | 3.0 | 10.7 |

15 h | 1.18 | 0.75 | 1.44 | 9 | Y | 2.0 | 5.5 | 2.9 | 10.4 |

16 h | 1.24 | 0.78 | 1.50 | 9 | Y | 1.9 | 5.3 | 2.8 | 9.9 |

12 h | 13 h | 14 h | 15 h | 16 h | 24 h | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Acetes invasion time/d | >15 | >15 | 8 | 7 | 6.5 | 12 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Li, X.; Yang, L.; Ren, H.; Liu, Z.; Jia, Z.
Analysis of the Invasion of Acetes into the Water Intake of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Base. *Water* **2022**, *14*, 3741.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223741

**AMA Style**

Li X, Yang L, Ren H, Liu Z, Jia Z.
Analysis of the Invasion of Acetes into the Water Intake of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Base. *Water*. 2022; 14(22):3741.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223741

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Li, Xinghao, Lin Yang, Huatang Ren, Zhaowei Liu, and Zeyu Jia.
2022. "Analysis of the Invasion of Acetes into the Water Intake of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Base" *Water* 14, no. 22: 3741.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223741