Sequential Analysis of Phosphorus Compounds Contained in the Substrates and the Digestate
- primary energy resources (solid biofuels), including straw-cereal, legume and oilseeds, as well as hay, wood-waste from the wood industry and forestry, and used wooden packaging and production waste, yields from energy crops, dehydrated sewage sludge, pellets, briquettes, biocarbon and waste from the processing industry;
- secondary energy resources (gas biofuels), biogas produced, among others, from agricultural waste (slurry, manure, plant biomass), sewage sludge, waste in municipal landfills, agricultural and food industry waste: pulp, bagasse, molasses, wine, oil, cheese and dairy waste, as well as spoiled and expired vegetables and fruits;
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Description of the Research Object
2.2. Sampling and Testing Methodology
- P-lab. (labile): labile phosphorus, the fraction of easily soluble phosphorus compounds, extracted with 0.1 M NH4Cl solution;
- P-Al: phosphorus in aluminium phosphates, extracted with 0.5 M NH4F solution,
- P-Fe: phosphorus in iron phosphates, extracted with 0.1 M NaOH solution;
- P-red. (reduced): extracted with 0.3 M sodium citrate solution and sodium dithionite;
- P-okl. (occluded): fraction of occluded phosphates, absorbed on the surface of mineral particles, extracted with 0.1 M NaOH solution;
- P-Ca: phosphorus in calcium phosphates, extracted with 0.25 M H2SO4.
2.3. Statistical Analysis of the Study Results
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Physico-Chemical Properties of Substrates and Digestate
3.2. Total Phosphorus Content of Substrates and Digestates and Their Sequential Analysis
- The chemical composition of waste used in fertilisation, including the phosphorus content and its mobility, is crucial in terms of providing nutrients for plants, but also in terms of water protection and its susceptibility to eutrophication, which is determined by the availability of phosphorus.
- The content of about 80% of maize silage in fermented substrates determined the physicochemical composition of the feed and digestate.
- The addition of substrates in the form of poultry manure and potato pulp influenced the content of total phosphorus and slightly modified the content of individual fractions in it.
- The fermentation process, to some extent, decreased the share of fraction I (mobile) and fraction II (combined with aluminium), increased the share of fraction VI (combination with calcium) and had no significant effect on the remaining ones. The share of phosphorus in the most mobile fractions decreased by 10% to 30% compared to the share of the raw materials used.
- The share of bioavailable phosphorus in the fermentation was about 60% in relation to the total phosphorus content.
- The digestate is a material rich in macronutrients and should be used as a fertilizer in appropriate doses for specific plants, so that nutrients, including phosphorus, do seep into surface waters.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Total Phosphorus/Fractions||I Term||II Term||III Term||IV Term||Mean|
|Total Phosphorus/Fractions||I term||II term||III term||IV term||Mean|
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Wiater, J. Sequential Analysis of Phosphorus Compounds Contained in the Substrates and the Digestate. Water 2022, 14, 3655. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223655
Wiater J. Sequential Analysis of Phosphorus Compounds Contained in the Substrates and the Digestate. Water. 2022; 14(22):3655. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223655Chicago/Turabian Style
Wiater, Józefa. 2022. "Sequential Analysis of Phosphorus Compounds Contained in the Substrates and the Digestate" Water 14, no. 22: 3655. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223655