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Article

Enhancing Informed Decisions for Coastal Groundwater Sustainability: A Network Analysis of Water-Related Indicator Results from 122 Cities

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 04066, Korea
2
Department of Land, Water and Environmental Research, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Goyang-si 10223, Korea
3
KWR Water Research Institute, Groningenhaven 7, 3430 BB Nieuwegein, The Netherlands
4
Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 8a, 3584 CB Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maurizio Polemio and Konstantinos Voudouris
Water 2022, 14(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020262
Received: 20 December 2021 / Revised: 12 January 2022 / Accepted: 13 January 2022 / Published: 17 January 2022
In many places around the globe, groundwater has been threatened by various pressures, which calls for better management strategies for groundwater sustainability. In this study, we suggest a novel framework for identifying factors critical to coastal groundwater based on results from City Blueprint (CB) assessments. By compiling the 5856 indicator results of the City Blueprint Approach (CBA) from 122 cities and analyzing the correlation between these indicators, we constructed City Blueprint networks (CBN) by using a complex network modeling approach for three groups of cities: all 122 cities, 40 coastal, and 82 non-coastal cities. These networks were then analyzed for their node centralities to identify major factors that influence coastal groundwater management. Interestingly, our analysis revealed that groundwater has various indirect but important links with the factors that are typically unexplored in the literature. We also assessed the CB of the two largest coastal cities in South Korea. By combining the results of network analysis and CB assessment of the two cities, we could identify the indicators that are potentially at risk regarding coastal groundwater. We propose the CBN as a novel approach to unveil underestimated or hidden factors related to the target system (e.g., groundwater), which allows extensive options for sustainable groundwater management. View Full-Text
Keywords: city blueprint approach; sustainable groundwater management; seawater intrusion (SWI); complex network; centrality city blueprint approach; sustainable groundwater management; seawater intrusion (SWI); complex network; centrality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, K.; Chang, S.; Koop, S.; van Leeuwen, K.; Park, J. Enhancing Informed Decisions for Coastal Groundwater Sustainability: A Network Analysis of Water-Related Indicator Results from 122 Cities. Water 2022, 14, 262. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020262

AMA Style

Lee K, Chang S, Koop S, van Leeuwen K, Park J. Enhancing Informed Decisions for Coastal Groundwater Sustainability: A Network Analysis of Water-Related Indicator Results from 122 Cities. Water. 2022; 14(2):262. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020262

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Khawon, Sunwoo Chang, Stef Koop, Kees van Leeuwen, and Jeryang Park. 2022. "Enhancing Informed Decisions for Coastal Groundwater Sustainability: A Network Analysis of Water-Related Indicator Results from 122 Cities" Water 14, no. 2: 262. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020262

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