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Review on Methylene Blue: Its Properties, Uses, Toxicity and Photodegradation

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710129, China
Department of Chemistry, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda 24420, Pakistan
Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, 14a Ravila St., 50411 Tartu, Estonia
Physics Department & IRC-Hydrogen and Energy Storage, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Department of Pharmacy, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal 18050, Pakistan
Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara 18800, Pakistan
National Center of Excellence in Physical Chemistry (NCE), University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
School of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John Zhou
Water 2022, 14(2), 242;
Received: 30 November 2021 / Revised: 12 January 2022 / Accepted: 12 January 2022 / Published: 14 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Catalytic and Microbial Treatment of Water Pollutants)
The unavailability of clean drinking water is one of the significant health issues in modern times. Industrial dyes are one of the dominant chemicals that make water unfit for drinking. Among these dyes, methylene blue (MB) is toxic, carcinogenic, and non-biodegradable and can cause a severe threat to human health and environmental safety. It is usually released in natural water sources, which becomes a health threat to human beings and living organisms. Hence, there is a need to develop an environmentally friendly, efficient technology for removing MB from wastewater. Photodegradation is an advanced oxidation process widely used for MB removal. It has the advantages of complete mineralization of dye into simple and nontoxic species with the potential to decrease the processing cost. This review provides a tutorial basis for the readers working in the dye degradation research area. We not only covered the basic principles of the process but also provided a wide range of previously published work on advanced photocatalytic systems (single-component and multi-component photocatalysts). Our study has focused on critical parameters that can affect the photodegradation rate of MB, such as photocatalyst type and loading, irradiation reaction time, pH of reaction media, initial concentration of dye, radical scavengers and oxidising agents. The photodegradation mechanism, reaction pathways, intermediate products, and final products of MB are also summarized. An overview of the future perspectives to utilize MB at an industrial scale is also provided. This paper identifies strategies for the development of effective MB photodegradation systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: methylene blue (MB); photodegradation; toxicity; degradation parameter; mechanism; degradation products methylene blue (MB); photodegradation; toxicity; degradation parameter; mechanism; degradation products
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, I.; Saeed, K.; Zekker, I.; Zhang, B.; Hendi, A.H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, S.; Zada, N.; Ahmad, H.; Shah, L.A.; Shah, T.; Khan, I. Review on Methylene Blue: Its Properties, Uses, Toxicity and Photodegradation. Water 2022, 14, 242.

AMA Style

Khan I, Saeed K, Zekker I, Zhang B, Hendi AH, Ahmad A, Ahmad S, Zada N, Ahmad H, Shah LA, Shah T, Khan I. Review on Methylene Blue: Its Properties, Uses, Toxicity and Photodegradation. Water. 2022; 14(2):242.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Idrees, Khalid Saeed, Ivar Zekker, Baoliang Zhang, Abdulmajeed H. Hendi, Ashfaq Ahmad, Shujaat Ahmad, Noor Zada, Hanif Ahmad, Luqman Ali Shah, Tariq Shah, and Ibrahim Khan. 2022. "Review on Methylene Blue: Its Properties, Uses, Toxicity and Photodegradation" Water 14, no. 2: 242.

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