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Article

Hydrological Response of the Wami–Ruvu Basin to Land-Use and Land-Cover Changes and Its Impacts for the Future

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State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241, China
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Department of Geography and Economics, Dar es Salaam University College of Education, Dar es Salaam P.O. Box 2329, Tanzania
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Department of Transportation and Geotechnical Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam P.O. Box 35131, Tanzania
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Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science (Ministry of Education), School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
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Department of Water Resources Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam P.O. Box 35131, Tanzania
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mohammad Hossein Niksokhan
Water 2022, 14(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020184
Received: 11 December 2021 / Revised: 31 December 2021 / Accepted: 6 January 2022 / Published: 10 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Management and Social Issues)
The evaluation of the hydrological responses of river basins to land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes is crucial for sustaining water resources. We assessed the impact of LULC changes (1990–2018) on three hydrological components (water yield (WYLD), evapotranspiration (ET), and sediment yield (SYLD)) of the Wami–Ruvu Basin (WRB) in Tanzania, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The 1990 LULC imagery was used for SWAT simulation, and imagery from 2000, 2010, and 2018 was used for comparison with modelled hydrological parameters. The model was calibrated (1993–2008) and validated (2009–2018) in the SWAT-CUP after allowing three years (1990–1992) for the warm-up period. The results showed a decrease in WYLD (3.11 mm) and an increase in ET (29.71 mm) and SYLD (from 0.12 t/h to 1.5 t/h). The impact of LULC changes on WYLD, ET, and SYLD showed that the increase in agriculture and built-up areas and bushland, and the contraction of forest led to the hydrological instability of the WRB. These results were further assessed with climatic factors, which revealed a decrease in precipitation and an increase in temperature by 1 °C. This situation seems to look more adverse in the future, based on the LULC of the year 2036 as predicted by the CA–Markov model. Our study calls for urgent intervention by re-planning LULC and re-assessing hydrological changes timely. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrological response; LULC change; SWAT model; SWAT-CUP; Wami–Ruvu Basin; Tanzania hydrological response; LULC change; SWAT model; SWAT-CUP; Wami–Ruvu Basin; Tanzania
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ngondo, J.; Mango, J.; Nobert, J.; Dubi, A.; Li, X.; Cheng, H. Hydrological Response of the Wami–Ruvu Basin to Land-Use and Land-Cover Changes and Its Impacts for the Future. Water 2022, 14, 184. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020184

AMA Style

Ngondo J, Mango J, Nobert J, Dubi A, Li X, Cheng H. Hydrological Response of the Wami–Ruvu Basin to Land-Use and Land-Cover Changes and Its Impacts for the Future. Water. 2022; 14(2):184. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020184

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ngondo, Jamila, Joseph Mango, Joel Nobert, Alfonse Dubi, Xiang Li, and Heqin Cheng. 2022. "Hydrological Response of the Wami–Ruvu Basin to Land-Use and Land-Cover Changes and Its Impacts for the Future" Water 14, no. 2: 184. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020184

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