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Article

The Assessment of External and Internal Nutrient Loading as a Basis for Lake Management

Department of Water Protection, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 6, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
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Academic Editors: Michael Twiss and Quanfa Zhang
Water 2022, 14(18), 2844; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182844
Received: 23 June 2022 / Revised: 31 August 2022 / Accepted: 2 September 2022 / Published: 12 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers)
Successful management of lake ecosystems used for recreation requires firstly an identification of nutrient sources. It is necessary to identify the factors causing the deterioration of water quality and to plan measures for their mitigation. Analyses of the external and internal nutrient loading were carried out for the hypereutrophic Raczyńskie Lake. The study included flows from lake tributaries, stormwater runoff from impermeable areas and direct catchment impact as external sources of nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as bottom sediments as an internal source of phosphorus. In the case of external sources, the largest load (about 80% of N and 67% of P) is supplied from croplands via the shoreline. Both external and internal loading was characterized by distinct seasonal variability. The loads from watercourses supplying the lake played the most significant role in spring, whereas the release of phosphorus from bottom sediments (accounting for 81.4% of the total P load) was responsible for cyanobacterial blooms in summer. In order to improve Raczyńskie Lake water quality it is crucial to implement both in-catchment and in-lake measures by means of diversion of stormwater runoff, reduction of nutrient content in some of tributaries at their inflow to the lake (gabions filled with dolomite surrounded by macrophytes) and restoration treatments aiming at the inactivation of phosphorus in the water column and reduction of its release from sediments. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrogen; phosphorus; external and internal loading; bottom sediments; lake management nitrogen; phosphorus; external and internal loading; bottom sediments; lake management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kowalczewska-Madura, K.; Dondajewska-Pielka, R.; Gołdyn, R. The Assessment of External and Internal Nutrient Loading as a Basis for Lake Management. Water 2022, 14, 2844. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182844

AMA Style

Kowalczewska-Madura K, Dondajewska-Pielka R, Gołdyn R. The Assessment of External and Internal Nutrient Loading as a Basis for Lake Management. Water. 2022; 14(18):2844. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182844

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kowalczewska-Madura, Katarzyna, Renata Dondajewska-Pielka, and Ryszard Gołdyn. 2022. "The Assessment of External and Internal Nutrient Loading as a Basis for Lake Management" Water 14, no. 18: 2844. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182844

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