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Communication

Horizontal Distribution and Carbon Biomass of Planktonic Foraminifera in the Eastern Indian Ocean

1
Institute for Advanced Marine Research, University of Geoscience, Guangzhou 511462, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Wuhan 430074, China
3
Research Centre for Indian Ocean Ecosystem, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China
4
NOAA, National Ocean Service, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zrinka Ljubešić
Water 2022, 14(13), 2048; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132048
Received: 23 April 2022 / Revised: 1 June 2022 / Accepted: 1 June 2022 / Published: 26 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Phytoplankton Diversity)
Distribution and carbon biomass of planktonic foraminifera were investigated from the euphotic zone of the Eastern Indian Ocean during a two-month cruise, ‘Shiyan I’ (10 April–13 May 2014). Foraminifera species were collected through plankton net sampling at 44 locations (80.00°–96.10° E, 10.08° N–6.00° S). The temperature (°C) ranged between 12.82 and 31.8 °C, the salinity ranged between 32.5 and 35.5, and chlorophyll-a concentrations ranged between 0.005 µg/L and 0.89 µg/L. A total of 20 taxa were identified based on the spherical chamber shell, spines, and a final whorl which were examined under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Dominant species that were characterized by the high dominant index Y > 0.14–0.46 were Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinoides ruber white, Globigerinella siphonifera, Turborotalita quinqueloba, and Globigerinella calida, contributing to the community up to 86%. The shell size of collected taxa was from 51 to 508 μm and the total carbon biomass was estimated to be between 0.062 µg C m–3 and 26.52 µg C m–3. The high carbon biomass was recorded at two stations in the equator zone. Due to its large size, Globorotalia menardii had total carbon biomass of 3.9 µg C m–3, followed by G. calida 0.68 µg C m−3, Trilobatus sacculifer 0.38 µg C m–3, Orbulina universa 0.56 µg C m–3, and G. ruber white 0.22 µg C m–3, respectively. The Pearson correlation analysis showed that the temperature and chlorophyll-a were two explanatory environmental variables that were found to be highly significant (p < 0.05) and that triggered the distribution and abundance of dominant foraminifera species in the study region. Overall, high abundances and carbon biomass were derived from the euphotic zone and equatorial region of the Eastern Indian Ocean. View Full-Text
Keywords: planktonic foraminifera; horizontal distribution; diversity; carbon biomass; euphotic zone; Eastern Indian Ocean planktonic foraminifera; horizontal distribution; diversity; carbon biomass; euphotic zone; Eastern Indian Ocean
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MDPI and ACS Style

Munir, S.; Sun, J.; Morton, S.L.; Zhang, X.; Ding, C. Horizontal Distribution and Carbon Biomass of Planktonic Foraminifera in the Eastern Indian Ocean. Water 2022, 14, 2048. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132048

AMA Style

Munir S, Sun J, Morton SL, Zhang X, Ding C. Horizontal Distribution and Carbon Biomass of Planktonic Foraminifera in the Eastern Indian Ocean. Water. 2022; 14(13):2048. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132048

Chicago/Turabian Style

Munir, Sonia, Jun Sun, Steve L. Morton, Xiaodong Zhang, and Changling Ding. 2022. "Horizontal Distribution and Carbon Biomass of Planktonic Foraminifera in the Eastern Indian Ocean" Water 14, no. 13: 2048. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132048

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