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Assessment of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination of the Red Sea with Endemic Fish from Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) as Bioindicator of Aquatic Environmental Pollution

Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Academic Editor: Alessandro Bergamasco
Water 2022, 14(11), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111706
Received: 15 April 2022 / Revised: 13 May 2022 / Accepted: 24 May 2022 / Published: 26 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Biodiversity and Functionality of Aquatic Ecosystems)
The aim of this study was to determine whether endemic coral fish commonly consumed by Jeddah residents could serve as bioindicators of oil contamination. In addition, we planned to investigate the relationship between amino acid changes and hydrocarbon concentrations in fish tissue. The composition of amino acids was analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography with precolumn derivatization. An analytical study of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total petroleum hydrocarbons was conducted by combining gas chromatography with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied using Statgraphics software to determine the impact of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total petroleum hydrocarbons on the amino acid profile of three species of fish. In addition, the bioconcentration factor was estimated in the studied species and was used to validate the results obtained from the multivariate analysis. Based on the results of the study, the sum of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with two cycles, and with five to six cycles, is in reverse order in Plectropomus pessuliferus with respect to Epinephelus tauvina and Cephalopholis argus. The factor analysis showed high factor scores for aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine, chrysene, and total petroleum hydrocarbons, and for lipids and benzo(g,h,i)perylene, which could be explained by bioaccumulation. It was concluded that the high proportions of glutamic acid (8.32–11.10%) and aspartic acid (6.06–8.27%) in the muscles of the studied species are a sign of contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons. The incremental lifetime cancer risk values for the three endemic fish exceeded the limit value (>10−5), indicating a high potential cancer risk for the Saudi population. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acids; bioindicator; endemic fish; health risk; hydrocarbons pollution; sea water amino acids; bioindicator; endemic fish; health risk; hydrocarbons pollution; sea water
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jamoussi, B.; Chakroun, R.; Al-Mur, B. Assessment of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination of the Red Sea with Endemic Fish from Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) as Bioindicator of Aquatic Environmental Pollution. Water 2022, 14, 1706. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111706

AMA Style

Jamoussi B, Chakroun R, Al-Mur B. Assessment of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination of the Red Sea with Endemic Fish from Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) as Bioindicator of Aquatic Environmental Pollution. Water. 2022; 14(11):1706. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111706

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jamoussi, Bassem, Radhouane Chakroun, and Bandar Al-Mur. 2022. "Assessment of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination of the Red Sea with Endemic Fish from Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) as Bioindicator of Aquatic Environmental Pollution" Water 14, no. 11: 1706. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111706

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