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Article

Hydrological Effects of Prefabricated Permeable Pavements on Parking Lots

by 1,2, 1,2,*,†, 1,2,†, 1,2,3,†, 4 and 1,2,3,*,†
1
School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
2
Jiangsu Sponge City Material and Performance Testing Engineering and Technology Research Center, Kunshan 215300, China
3
Monash University Joint Research Center for Future Cities, Southeast University, Suzhou 215123, China
4
IHE-Delft, Institute of Water Education, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first authors-have equal contribution.
Academic Editors: Amit Kumar and Zhiguo Yu
Water 2022, 14(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010045
Received: 31 October 2021 / Revised: 7 December 2021 / Accepted: 9 December 2021 / Published: 24 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
Permeable pavements can infiltrate and reduce stormwater runoff in parking lots, but issues around long construction periods and proper maintenance still required proper research and further understanding. The application of precast concrete can help to solve this. In this study, precast concrete components were applied to the design of permeable pavements to form prefabricated permeable pavements. The laboratory study is one of the first to examine the hydrological effect of prefabricated pervious pavements in parking lots. Four kinds of permeable pavements were designed and manufactured. These had different materials (natural sand-gravel, medium sand) which comprised the leveling layer or different assembly forms of precast concrete at the base. Three scenarios of rainfall intensity (0.5, 1, and 2 mm/min) and three rainfall intervals (one, three, and seven days) were simulated using rainfall simulators. The initial runoff time, runoff coefficient, and runoff control rate of each permeable pavement were investigated during the process of simulating. Results showed that the initial runoff time was no earlier than 42 min, the maximum runoff coefficient was 0.52, and the minimum runoff control rate was 47.7% within the rainfall intensity of 2 mm/min. The initial runoff time of each permeable pavement was no earlier than 36 min when the rainfall interval was one day, whereas, the maximum runoff coefficient was 0.64, and the average runoff control rate was 41.5%. The leveling layer material had a greater impact on the hydrological effect of permeable pavements, while the assembly form of precast concrete had no significant effect. Compared with natural sand-gravel, when the leveling layer was medium sand, the runoff generation was advanced by 4.5–7.8 min under different rainfall intensities, and 7–10 min under different rainfall intervals. The maximum runoff coefficient increased with about 14.6% when the rainfall interval was one day. Among four kinds of permeable pavements, the type I permeable pavement had the best runoff regulation performance. The results revealed that all prefabricated permeable pavements used in this study had good runoff control performance, and this design idea proved to be an alternative for the future design of permeable pavements. View Full-Text
Keywords: permeable pavement; parking lot; sponge city; runoff; rainfall intensity permeable pavement; parking lot; sponge city; runoff; rainfall intensity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dai, K.; Liu, W.; Shui, X.; Fu, D.; Zevenbergen, C.; Singh, R.P. Hydrological Effects of Prefabricated Permeable Pavements on Parking Lots. Water 2022, 14, 45. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010045

AMA Style

Dai K, Liu W, Shui X, Fu D, Zevenbergen C, Singh RP. Hydrological Effects of Prefabricated Permeable Pavements on Parking Lots. Water. 2022; 14(1):45. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010045

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dai, Kechang, Weixing Liu, Xiaotian Shui, Dafang Fu, Chris Zevenbergen, and Rajendra P. Singh. 2022. "Hydrological Effects of Prefabricated Permeable Pavements on Parking Lots" Water 14, no. 1: 45. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010045

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