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Article

How Do Ground Litter and Canopy Regulate Surface Runoff?—A Paired-Plot Investigation after 80 Years of Broadleaf Forest Regeneration

1
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, Kota Kinabalu 88400, Sabah, Malaysia
2
Ecohydrology Research Institute, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 11-44, Goizuka, Seto 489-0031, Japan
3
Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo Forest, 9-61 Yamabe Higashimachi, Furano 079-1563, Japan
4
Executive Office, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo Forests, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Dunkerley
Water 2021, 13(9), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091205
Received: 19 March 2021 / Revised: 19 April 2021 / Accepted: 23 April 2021 / Published: 27 April 2021
Relatively minimal attention has been given to the hydrology of natural broadleaf forests compared to conifer plantations in Japan. We investigated the impacts of ground litter removal and forest clearing on surface runoff using the paired runoff plot approach. Plot A (7.4 m2) was maintained as a control while plot B (8.1 m2) was manipulated. Surface runoff was measured by a tipping-bucket recorder, and rainfall by a tipping-bucket rain gauge. From May 2016 to July 2019, 20, 54, and 42 runoff events were recorded in the no-treatment (NT), litter removed before clearcutting (LRBC), and after clearcutting (AC) phases, respectively. Surface runoff increased 4× when moving from the NT to LRBC phase, and 4.4× when moving from the LRBC to AC phase. Antecedent precipitation index (API11) had a significant influence on surface runoff in the LRBC phase but not in the NT and AC phases. Surface runoff in the AC phase was high regardless of API11. The rainfall required for initiating surface runoff is 38% and 56% less when moving from the NT to LRBC, and LRBC to AC phases, respectively. Ground litter and canopy function to reduce surface runoff in regenerated broadleaf forests. View Full-Text
Keywords: litter; canopy; logging; overland flow; surface runoff; interception; broadleaf; forest litter; canopy; logging; overland flow; surface runoff; interception; broadleaf; forest
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nainar, A.; Kishimoto, K.; Takahashi, K.; Gomyo, M.; Kuraji, K. How Do Ground Litter and Canopy Regulate Surface Runoff?—A Paired-Plot Investigation after 80 Years of Broadleaf Forest Regeneration. Water 2021, 13, 1205. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091205

AMA Style

Nainar A, Kishimoto K, Takahashi K, Gomyo M, Kuraji K. How Do Ground Litter and Canopy Regulate Surface Runoff?—A Paired-Plot Investigation after 80 Years of Broadleaf Forest Regeneration. Water. 2021; 13(9):1205. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091205

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nainar, Anand, Koju Kishimoto, Koichi Takahashi, Mie Gomyo, and Koichiro Kuraji. 2021. "How Do Ground Litter and Canopy Regulate Surface Runoff?—A Paired-Plot Investigation after 80 Years of Broadleaf Forest Regeneration" Water 13, no. 9: 1205. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091205

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