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Thermal Desalination of Produced Water—An Analysis of the Partitioning of Constituents into Product Streams and Its Implications for Beneficial Use Outside the O&G Industry
Article

Evaluation of Galdieria sulphuraria and Chlorella vulgaris for the Bioremediation of Produced Water

1
Center for Midstream Management and Science, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77705, USA
2
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77705, USA
3
Center for Advances in Water & Air Quality, College of Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77705, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Pei Xu
Water 2021, 13(9), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091183
Received: 18 March 2021 / Revised: 16 April 2021 / Accepted: 22 April 2021 / Published: 25 April 2021
Produced water (PW) is the largest waste stream generated by the oil and gas industry. Traditional treatment of PW burdens the industry with significant expenses and environmental issues. Alternatively, microalgal-based bioremediation of PW is often viewed as an ecologically safe and sustainable platform for treating PW. Moreover, the nutrients in PW could support algal growth. However, significant dilution of PW is often required in algal-based systems due to the presence of complex chemical contaminants. In light of these facts, the current work has investigated the potential of cultivating Galdieria sulphuraria and Chlorella vulgaris in PW using multiple dilutions; 0% PW, 5% PW, 10% PW, 20% PW, 50% PW and 100% PW. While both algal strains can grow in PW, the current results indicated that G. sulphuraria has a higher potential of growth in up to 50% PW (total dissolved solids of up to 55 g L−1) with a growth rate of 0.72 ± 0.05 g L−1 d−1 and can achieve a final biomass density of 4.28 ± 0.16 g L−1 in seven days without the need for additional micronutrients. Additionally, the algae showed the potential of removing 99.6 ± 0.2% nitrogen and 74.2 ± 8.5% phosphorus from the PW. View Full-Text
Keywords: microalgae; Galdieria sulphuraria; Chlorella vulgaris; growth; biomass; nitrogen; phosphorus; salinity; thermophilic; bioremediation; produced water microalgae; Galdieria sulphuraria; Chlorella vulgaris; growth; biomass; nitrogen; phosphorus; salinity; thermophilic; bioremediation; produced water
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rahman, A.; Pan, S.; Houston, C.; Selvaratnam, T. Evaluation of Galdieria sulphuraria and Chlorella vulgaris for the Bioremediation of Produced Water. Water 2021, 13, 1183. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091183

AMA Style

Rahman A, Pan S, Houston C, Selvaratnam T. Evaluation of Galdieria sulphuraria and Chlorella vulgaris for the Bioremediation of Produced Water. Water. 2021; 13(9):1183. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091183

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rahman, Ashiqur, Shanglei Pan, Cymone Houston, and Thinesh Selvaratnam. 2021. "Evaluation of Galdieria sulphuraria and Chlorella vulgaris for the Bioremediation of Produced Water" Water 13, no. 9: 1183. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091183

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