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Article

Evaluation of Hybrid Constructed Wetland Performance and Reuse of Treated Wastewater in Agricultural Irrigation

1
Dekonta, a.s., Dřetovice 109, 273 42 Stehelčeves, Czech Republic
2
Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, 128 01 Prague, Czech Republic
3
Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
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TGM Water Research Institute, Mojmírovo nám. 16, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic
5
School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 731 00 Chania, Greece
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Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas N. Angelakis
Water 2021, 13(9), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091165
Received: 14 March 2021 / Revised: 18 April 2021 / Accepted: 19 April 2021 / Published: 23 April 2021
Agriculture is being negatively affected by the decrease in precipitation that has been observed over the last few years. Even in the Czech Republic, farmers are being urged to irrigate their fields despite the fact that sources of water for irrigation are rapidly being depleted. This problem might be partially solved via the reuse of treated wastewater in certain agricultural sectors. However, the public perception of the reuse of wastewater remains negative primarily due to unknown risks to the environment and public health. To overcome this barrier, a semi-operated irrigation field was established at Kostelec nad Ohří in the Central Bohemian region of the Czech Republic and planted with common garden crops such as tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) and lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with two different water sources, i.e., treated wastewater from a local nature-based treatment system, a hybrid constructed wetland (HCW), and local fresh water from well. The HCW was put into operation in 2017 and was reconstructed in 2018 and includes both horizontal and vertical flow beds; the trial irrigation field was added in the same year. The reconstruction of the facility significantly enhanced the removal efficiency with respect to all monitored parameters, e.g., biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), N–NH4+, total N and the suspended solids (TSS), except for total P. The HCW also ensured the significant removal of several observed pathogenic microorganisms (E. coli, intestinal enterococci and thermotolerant coliforms). During the 2018 and 2019 growing seasons, we observed the significantly enhanced growth of the crops irrigated with wastewater from the HCW due to the fertilizing effect. The risks associated with the contamination of crops irrigated with treated water are not negligible and it is necessary to pay sufficient attention to them, especially when introducing irrigation with wastewater into practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid constructed wetland; nature-based solutions; wastewater reuse; nutrient recovery; agriculture; sustainability; horizontal flow; vertical flow hybrid constructed wetland; nature-based solutions; wastewater reuse; nutrient recovery; agriculture; sustainability; horizontal flow; vertical flow
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MDPI and ACS Style

Šereš, M.; Innemanová, P.; Hnátková, T.; Rozkošný, M.; Stefanakis, A.; Semerád, J.; Cajthaml, T. Evaluation of Hybrid Constructed Wetland Performance and Reuse of Treated Wastewater in Agricultural Irrigation. Water 2021, 13, 1165. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091165

AMA Style

Šereš M, Innemanová P, Hnátková T, Rozkošný M, Stefanakis A, Semerád J, Cajthaml T. Evaluation of Hybrid Constructed Wetland Performance and Reuse of Treated Wastewater in Agricultural Irrigation. Water. 2021; 13(9):1165. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091165

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šereš, Michal, Petra Innemanová, Tereza Hnátková, Miloš Rozkošný, Alexandros Stefanakis, Jaroslav Semerád, and Tomáš Cajthaml. 2021. "Evaluation of Hybrid Constructed Wetland Performance and Reuse of Treated Wastewater in Agricultural Irrigation" Water 13, no. 9: 1165. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091165

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