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Article

Evaluating the Collaborative Security of Water–Energy–Food in China on the Basis of Symbiotic System Theory

by 1,2, 2,3,*, 2,3,4, 2,3, 5 and 6
1
State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
2
Research Center for Climate Change, Ministry of Water Resources, Nanjing 210029, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210009, China
4
Yangtze Institute for Conservation and Development, Nanjing 210098, China
5
College of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, Shandong Agriculture University, Taian 271000, China
6
Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources, College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pietro E. Campana
Water 2021, 13(8), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081112
Received: 24 March 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 15 April 2021 / Published: 17 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Sustainable Development)
Water, energy, and food are essential resources for humanity. The growing shortages of these resources and serious deterioration of river environments are having a big impact on the sustainable development of the economy and society in China. Water, energy, and food support human life and yet coexist in different ways, and therefore it is critical to find a way for all three key elements to be secured in order to support high standards of sustainable development in China. We used the criteria of stability, coordination, and sustainability of symbiotic systems to select 33 indexes that were then used to establish an index system. The weight of index was determined by using the entropy weight method combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was used to calculate the collaborative security index, which was the basis of our evaluation of the collaborative water–energy–food security of China in time and space. The results show that North China and Northwest China are at high water–food–energy security risk, while East, Central, and South China are at moderate risk. With the exception of Southwest China and South China, risk in most parts of the country has risen over the past decades, while it has fallen in Shandong, Henan, Sichuan, and Yunnan provinces. View Full-Text
Keywords: collaborative security; symbiosis; variable fuzzy assessment; water–energy–food collaborative security; symbiosis; variable fuzzy assessment; water–energy–food
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Liu, C.; Wang, G.; Bao, Z.; Diao, Y.; Liu, J. Evaluating the Collaborative Security of Water–Energy–Food in China on the Basis of Symbiotic System Theory. Water 2021, 13, 1112. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081112

AMA Style

Li X, Liu C, Wang G, Bao Z, Diao Y, Liu J. Evaluating the Collaborative Security of Water–Energy–Food in China on the Basis of Symbiotic System Theory. Water. 2021; 13(8):1112. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081112

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Xiao; Liu, Cuishan; Wang, Guoqing; Bao, Zhenxin; Diao, Yanfang; Liu, Jing. 2021. "Evaluating the Collaborative Security of Water–Energy–Food in China on the Basis of Symbiotic System Theory" Water 13, no. 8: 1112. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081112

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