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Effectivity and Efficiency of Best Management Practices Based on a Survey and SWAPP Model of the Xiangxi River Basin

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
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Academic Editor: Raghavan Srinivasan
Water 2021, 13(7), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070985
Received: 10 March 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 31 March 2021 / Published: 3 April 2021
A questionnaire survey was conducted among farmers in the Xiangxi River Basin to investigate the local livestock situation and the farmers’ understanding of and attitude towards pollution. The results showed that local farmers lacked environmental awareness and few livestock and poultry pollution treatment measures had been implemented. However, once farmers understood that livestock pollution would greatly influence their lives and interests, they would act to prevent Agricultural non–point source (ANPS) pollution. The farmers’ education level and satisfaction with the environment were the main factors affecting their awareness regarding ANPS pollution. The “Comprehensive Environmental Optimization Tool SWAT–APEX Interface” model (SWAPP) was used to simulate the reduction of ANPS by different best management practices (BMPs) and the construction cost was calculated. The results showed that compound bedding and piping systems and ponds were the most effective and economic measures for reducing ANPS pollution. Spatially, implementing BMPs in the upstream region was better for improving water quality. The nitrate reduction rate in upstream sub–basins reached 90%, which is 30% larger than that in downstream sub–basins with combined bedding and piping systems. Combining the farmers’ awareness of and engagement in livestock pollution with cost–effective BMPs can improve the BMPs’ effectivity and efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental awareness; agricultural non–point source pollution; best management practices; SWAT–APEX interface model; effectivity and efficiency analysis environmental awareness; agricultural non–point source pollution; best management practices; SWAT–APEX interface model; effectivity and efficiency analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, R.; Miao, Y.; Wang, Q.; Jiao, L.; Wang, Y.; Li, L.; Cao, L. Effectivity and Efficiency of Best Management Practices Based on a Survey and SWAPP Model of the Xiangxi River Basin. Water 2021, 13, 985. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070985

AMA Style

Liu R, Miao Y, Wang Q, Jiao L, Wang Y, Li L, Cao L. Effectivity and Efficiency of Best Management Practices Based on a Survey and SWAPP Model of the Xiangxi River Basin. Water. 2021; 13(7):985. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070985

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Ruimin; Miao, Yuexi; Wang, Qingrui; Jiao, Lijun; Wang, Yifan; Li, Lin; Cao, Leiping. 2021. "Effectivity and Efficiency of Best Management Practices Based on a Survey and SWAPP Model of the Xiangxi River Basin" Water 13, no. 7: 985. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070985

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