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Open AccessArticle

Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye onto Mesoporous Natural Inorganic Clays: Their Equilibrium Isotherm and Kinetics Studies

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Department of Civil Engineering, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur 10250, Pakistan
2
Department of Physics, Riphah International University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Department of Chemistry, Hazara University, Mansehra 21300, Pakistan
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Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
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Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mlynská Dolina, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia
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Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 15119, Iran
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Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xanel Vecino
Water 2021, 13(7), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070965
Received: 6 March 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 30 March 2021 / Published: 31 March 2021
Contamination of water with organic dyes is a major environmental concern as it causes serious life-threatening environmental problems. The present research was designed to evaluate the potential of three different natural inorganic clays (NICs) i.e., Pakistani bentonite clay (PB), bentonite purchased from Alfa Aesar (BT), and Turkish red mud (RM) for malachite green (MG) dye removal from an aqueous solution. Various analytical techniques, namely X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area measurement (BET), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), were used to investigate the physicochemical properties of the NICs samples. The effect of adsorption operational parameters such as contact time, aqueous phase pH, dye concentration, and amount of NICs on the adsorption behavior of MG onto NICs samples were investigated under the batch adsorption system. The equilibrium and kinetic inspection reflected the best description of MG adsorption behavior by the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-first-order kinetic model, respectively. The results indicated that the adsorption was favorable at higher pH. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated by Langmuir isotherm for PB, BT, and RM were found to be 243.90 mg/g, 188.68 mg/g, and 172.41 mg/g, respectively. It can be concluded that natural inorganic clays with a higher surface area can be used as an effective adsorbent material to remove the MG dye from an aqueous solution. View Full-Text
Keywords: clay; dye; adsorption; isotherm; kinetics clay; dye; adsorption; isotherm; kinetics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ullah, S.; Ur Rahman, A.; Ullah, F.; Rashid, A.; Arshad, T.; Viglašová, E.; Galamboš, M.; Mahmoodi, N.M.; Ullah, H. Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye onto Mesoporous Natural Inorganic Clays: Their Equilibrium Isotherm and Kinetics Studies. Water 2021, 13, 965. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070965

AMA Style

Ullah S, Ur Rahman A, Ullah F, Rashid A, Arshad T, Viglašová E, Galamboš M, Mahmoodi NM, Ullah H. Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye onto Mesoporous Natural Inorganic Clays: Their Equilibrium Isotherm and Kinetics Studies. Water. 2021; 13(7):965. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070965

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ullah, Sami; Ur Rahman, Altaf; Ullah, Fida; Rashid, Abdur; Arshad, Tausif; Viglašová, Eva; Galamboš, Michal; Mahmoodi, Niyaz M.; Ullah, Haseeb. 2021. "Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye onto Mesoporous Natural Inorganic Clays: Their Equilibrium Isotherm and Kinetics Studies" Water 13, no. 7: 965. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070965

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