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Open AccessArticle

Intra-Event Isotopic Changes in Water Vapor and Precipitation in South China

by 1, 1,2,3,* and 1
1
School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
2
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
3
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510275, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David Widory and Oleg S. Pokrovsky
Water 2021, 13(7), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070940
Received: 8 February 2021 / Revised: 10 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 30 March 2021
Synchronous observations of the isotopic composition of water vapor and precipitation for 24 rain events were performed. Rain events driven by low-level jets exhibited similar isotopic changes in precipitation and water vapor. The vertical activity of water vapor in convection causes the isotopic variation in precipitation to be opposite to that of water vapor. Isotopic changes of precipitation in low-pressure systems were partially synchronized with that of water vapor at high but not low water vapor concentrations. Changes in microphysical meteorological properties in stratiform precipitation give rise to different patterns of isotopic changes in water. The re-evaporation of raindrops can be determined by the enrichment ratio of heavy isotopes in the water under the cloud base, which is closely related to the raindrop radius. Stratiform precipitation, with small raindrop sizes, was prone to kinetic fractionation under the cloud base. The raindrop radius of low-level jets was small, favoring exchange with surrounding air and re-evaporation. The moist air mass in convection facilitates isotopic exchange of raindrops with surrounding water vapor, leading to low enrichment ratios. The lowest enrichment ratios in low-pressure systems were due to environments characterized by large-scale water vapor convergence. View Full-Text
Keywords: rain events; isotopic compositions of precipitation; isotopic compositions of water vapor; re-evaporation rain events; isotopic compositions of precipitation; isotopic compositions of water vapor; re-evaporation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Tang, C.; Cui, J. Intra-Event Isotopic Changes in Water Vapor and Precipitation in South China. Water 2021, 13, 940. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070940

AMA Style

Li X, Tang C, Cui J. Intra-Event Isotopic Changes in Water Vapor and Precipitation in South China. Water. 2021; 13(7):940. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070940

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Xingxian; Tang, Changyuan; Cui, Jingsi. 2021. "Intra-Event Isotopic Changes in Water Vapor and Precipitation in South China" Water 13, no. 7: 940. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070940

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