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Open AccessArticle

Distribution of the Macrophyte Communities in the Danube Reflects River Serial Discontinuity

1
Department of Functional and Evolutionary Ecology, Division of Limnology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
2
FDG Austria, DI Norbert Exler, Bentheimstrasse 9/25, A-1210 Vienna, Austria
3
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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Department of Limnology and Oceanography, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
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Centre for Ecological Research, Danube Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Karolina ut 29, H-1113 Budapest, Hungary
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Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 23, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-845 23 Bratislava, Slovakia
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Faculty of Agrobiotechnical Sciences Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Vladimira Preloga 1, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Intrarea Portocalelor 1–3, Sector 6, 060101 Bucharest, Romania
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Büro fur Ökologie und Vegetationskunde, Im Jägeracker 28, D-79312 Emmendingen, Germany
12
WWF Hungary, Almos vezert utja 69/A, H-1141 Budapest, Hungary
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Faculty of Education, University of Szeged Juhasz Gyula, Boldogasszony sgt. 6, H-6721 Szeged, Hungary
14
Sisačka cesta, 2. odvojak 45a, HR-10020 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arantza Iriarte
Water 2021, 13(7), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070918
Received: 26 January 2021 / Revised: 20 March 2021 / Accepted: 23 March 2021 / Published: 27 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology-Shaped Plant Communities: Diversity and Ecological Function)
The Danube is the second-longest river in Europe that is subjected to various man-made alterations, including those related to hydro-power plants. We surveyed and analyzed the presence and abundance of macrophytes in the main channel from 2582 river kilometers (rkm) to 171 rkm. We also assessed selected habitat parameters in the sampled river stretches. Sixty-eight different plant species were recorded along the entire course. Among neophytes, we found Elodea nuttallii, E. canadensis, Vallisneriaspiralis and Azolla filiculoides. Based on similarity analysis, we distinguished 15 plant communities, most of which were defined as associations, which were classified into 5 alliances and represented three vegetation classes, namely vegetation of rooted hydrophytes Potamogetonetea, the vegetation of pleustophytes Lemnetea and vegetation of marshes Phragmitetea. The number and abundance of plant species, as well as plant communities recorded in single stretches, varied along the course. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that environmental parameters explained 21% of plant species composition. CCA runs with neophytes explained 41% of the variance, and current velocity, water transparency, species number and bank structure were significant variables. The present study revealed that the free-running sections of the river are poor in number and abundance of plant species, whereas impounded reaches mainly show an opposite result. View Full-Text
Keywords: Danube; large river; macrophytes; neophytes; plant communities; distribution Danube; large river; macrophytes; neophytes; plant communities; distribution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Janauer, G.A.; Exler, N.; Anačkov, G.; Barta, V.; Berczik, Á.; Boža, P.; Dinka, M.; Georgiev, V.; Germ, M.; Holcar, M.; Hrivnák, R.; Igić, R.; Ozimec, S.; Sârbu, A.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt-Mumm, U.; Schütz, W.; Sipos, K.; Szalma, E.; Topić, J.; Tsoneva, S.; Valachovič, M.; Valchev, V.; Vukov, D.; Zelnik, I.; Gaberščik, A. Distribution of the Macrophyte Communities in the Danube Reflects River Serial Discontinuity. Water 2021, 13, 918. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070918

AMA Style

Janauer GA, Exler N, Anačkov G, Barta V, Berczik Á, Boža P, Dinka M, Georgiev V, Germ M, Holcar M, Hrivnák R, Igić R, Ozimec S, Sârbu A, Schmidt B, Schmidt-Mumm U, Schütz W, Sipos K, Szalma E, Topić J, Tsoneva S, Valachovič M, Valchev V, Vukov D, Zelnik I, Gaberščik A. Distribution of the Macrophyte Communities in the Danube Reflects River Serial Discontinuity. Water. 2021; 13(7):918. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070918

Chicago/Turabian Style

Janauer, Georg A.; Exler, Norbert; Anačkov, Goran; Barta, Veronika; Berczik, Árpád; Boža, Pal; Dinka, Mária; Georgiev, Valeri; Germ, Mateja; Holcar, Matej; Hrivnák, Richard; Igić, Ružica; Ozimec, Siniša; Sârbu, Anca; Schmidt, Brigitte; Schmidt-Mumm, Udo; Schütz, Wolfgang; Sipos, Katalin; Szalma, Elemér; Topić, Jasenka; Tsoneva, Sonya; Valachovič, Milan; Valchev, Vladimir; Vukov, Dragana; Zelnik, Igor; Gaberščik, Alenka. 2021. "Distribution of the Macrophyte Communities in the Danube Reflects River Serial Discontinuity" Water 13, no. 7: 918. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070918

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