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Distribution of the Macrophyte Communities in the Danube Reflects River Serial Discontinuity

Department of Functional and Evolutionary Ecology, Division of Limnology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
FDG Austria, DI Norbert Exler, Bentheimstrasse 9/25, A-1210 Vienna, Austria
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Department of Limnology and Oceanography, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
Centre for Ecological Research, Danube Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Karolina ut 29, H-1113 Budapest, Hungary
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 23, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-845 23 Bratislava, Slovakia
Faculty of Agrobiotechnical Sciences Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Vladimira Preloga 1, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Intrarea Portocalelor 1–3, Sector 6, 060101 Bucharest, Romania
Büro fur Ökologie und Vegetationskunde, Im Jägeracker 28, D-79312 Emmendingen, Germany
WWF Hungary, Almos vezert utja 69/A, H-1141 Budapest, Hungary
Faculty of Education, University of Szeged Juhasz Gyula, Boldogasszony sgt. 6, H-6721 Szeged, Hungary
Sisačka cesta, 2. odvojak 45a, HR-10020 Zagreb, Croatia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arantza Iriarte
Water 2021, 13(7), 918;
Received: 26 January 2021 / Revised: 20 March 2021 / Accepted: 23 March 2021 / Published: 27 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology-Shaped Plant Communities: Diversity and Ecological Function)
The Danube is the second-longest river in Europe that is subjected to various man-made alterations, including those related to hydro-power plants. We surveyed and analyzed the presence and abundance of macrophytes in the main channel from 2582 river kilometers (rkm) to 171 rkm. We also assessed selected habitat parameters in the sampled river stretches. Sixty-eight different plant species were recorded along the entire course. Among neophytes, we found Elodea nuttallii, E. canadensis, Vallisneriaspiralis and Azolla filiculoides. Based on similarity analysis, we distinguished 15 plant communities, most of which were defined as associations, which were classified into 5 alliances and represented three vegetation classes, namely vegetation of rooted hydrophytes Potamogetonetea, the vegetation of pleustophytes Lemnetea and vegetation of marshes Phragmitetea. The number and abundance of plant species, as well as plant communities recorded in single stretches, varied along the course. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that environmental parameters explained 21% of plant species composition. CCA runs with neophytes explained 41% of the variance, and current velocity, water transparency, species number and bank structure were significant variables. The present study revealed that the free-running sections of the river are poor in number and abundance of plant species, whereas impounded reaches mainly show an opposite result. View Full-Text
Keywords: Danube; large river; macrophytes; neophytes; plant communities; distribution Danube; large river; macrophytes; neophytes; plant communities; distribution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Janauer, G.A.; Exler, N.; Anačkov, G.; Barta, V.; Berczik, Á.; Boža, P.; Dinka, M.; Georgiev, V.; Germ, M.; Holcar, M.; Hrivnák, R.; Igić, R.; Ozimec, S.; Sârbu, A.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt-Mumm, U.; Schütz, W.; Sipos, K.; Szalma, E.; Topić, J.; Tsoneva, S.; Valachovič, M.; Valchev, V.; Vukov, D.; Zelnik, I.; Gaberščik, A. Distribution of the Macrophyte Communities in the Danube Reflects River Serial Discontinuity. Water 2021, 13, 918.

AMA Style

Janauer GA, Exler N, Anačkov G, Barta V, Berczik Á, Boža P, Dinka M, Georgiev V, Germ M, Holcar M, Hrivnák R, Igić R, Ozimec S, Sârbu A, Schmidt B, Schmidt-Mumm U, Schütz W, Sipos K, Szalma E, Topić J, Tsoneva S, Valachovič M, Valchev V, Vukov D, Zelnik I, Gaberščik A. Distribution of the Macrophyte Communities in the Danube Reflects River Serial Discontinuity. Water. 2021; 13(7):918.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Janauer, Georg A., Norbert Exler, Goran Anačkov, Veronika Barta, Árpád Berczik, Pal Boža, Mária Dinka, Valeri Georgiev, Mateja Germ, Matej Holcar, Richard Hrivnák, Ružica Igić, Siniša Ozimec, Anca Sârbu, Brigitte Schmidt, Udo Schmidt-Mumm, Wolfgang Schütz, Katalin Sipos, Elemér Szalma, Jasenka Topić, Sonya Tsoneva, Milan Valachovič, Vladimir Valchev, Dragana Vukov, Igor Zelnik, and Alenka Gaberščik. 2021. "Distribution of the Macrophyte Communities in the Danube Reflects River Serial Discontinuity" Water 13, no. 7: 918.

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