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Open AccessArticle

Ecological Risk Assessment and Contamination History of Heavy Metals in the Sediments of Chagan Lake, Northeast China

1
College of Earth and Sciences, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541006, China
2
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541006, China
3
College of Geo-Exploration Science and Technology, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Gavrilescu
Water 2021, 13(7), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070894
Received: 2 February 2021 / Revised: 16 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 March 2021 / Published: 25 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution)
The study deals with the spatio-temporal distribution of heavy metals in the sediments of Chagan lake, Northeast China. The pollution history of heavy metals is studied simultaneously through the 210Pb dating method by analyzing the characteristic of As, Hg, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentration-depth profiles. The potential ecological risk index (RI) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were used to evaluate the contamination degree. Principal component analysis (PCA), based on the logarithmic transformation and isometric log-ratio (ilr) transformed data, was applied with the aim of identifying the sources of heavy metals. The element concentrations show that the heavy metals are enriched in the surface sediment and sediment core with a varying degree, which is higher in the surficial residue. The results of Igeo indicate that the Cd and Hg in the surface sediment have reached a slightly contaminated level while other elements, uncontaminated. The results of RI show that the study area can be classified as an area with moderate ecological risk in which Cd and Hg mostly contribute to the overall risk. For the sediment core, the 210Pb dating results accurately reflect the sedimentary history over 153 years. From two evaluation indices (RI and Igeo) calculated by element concentration, there is no contamination, and the potential ecological risk is low during this period. The comparative study between raw and ilr transformed data shows that the closure effect of the raw data can be eliminated by ilr transformation. After that, the components obtained by robust principal component analysis (RPCA) are more representative than those obtained by PCA, both based on ilr transformed dataset, after eliminating the influence of outliers. Based on ilr transformed data with RPCA, three primary sources could be inferred: Cr, Ni, As, Zn, and Cu are mainly derived from natural sources; the main source of Cd and Hg are associated with agricultural activities and energy development; as for Pb, it originated from traffic and coal-burning activities, which is consistent with the fact that the development of tourism, fishery, and agriculture industries has led to the continuous increasing levels of anthropogenic Pb in Chagan Lake. The summarized results and conclusions will undoubtedly enhance the governmental awareness of heavy metal pollution and facilitate appropriate pollution control measures in Chagan Lake. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metal in sediment; 210Pb dating; isometric log-ratio (ilr) transformation; source analysis; Chagan Lake heavy metal in sediment; 210Pb dating; isometric log-ratio (ilr) transformation; source analysis; Chagan Lake
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, P.; Zheng, C.; Wen, M.; Luo, X.; Wu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Chai, S.; Huang, L. Ecological Risk Assessment and Contamination History of Heavy Metals in the Sediments of Chagan Lake, Northeast China. Water 2021, 13, 894. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070894

AMA Style

Liu P, Zheng C, Wen M, Luo X, Wu Z, Liu Y, Chai S, Huang L. Ecological Risk Assessment and Contamination History of Heavy Metals in the Sediments of Chagan Lake, Northeast China. Water. 2021; 13(7):894. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070894

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Panfeng; Zheng, Chaojie; Wen, Meilan; Luo, Xianrong; Wu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yinghong; Chai, Sheli; Huang, Liangliang. 2021. "Ecological Risk Assessment and Contamination History of Heavy Metals in the Sediments of Chagan Lake, Northeast China" Water 13, no. 7: 894. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070894

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