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Open AccessArticle

Developing Pseudo Continuous Pedotransfer Functions for International Soils Measured with the Evaporation Method and the HYPROP System: II. The Soil Hydraulic Conductivity Curve

1
Environmental Sciences Department, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
2
Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, 06110 Ankara, Turkey
3
Institute of Geoecology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Juan Carlos Gutiérrez-Estrada and Inmaculada Pulido-Calvo
Water 2021, 13(6), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060878
Received: 30 January 2021 / Revised: 14 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Computing for Water and Aquatic Resource Management)
Direct measurement of unsaturated hydraulic parameters is costly and time-consuming. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are typically developed to estimate soil hydraulic properties from readily available soil attributes. For the first time, in this study, we developed PTFs to estimate the soil hydraulic conductivity (log(K)) directly from measured data. We adopted the pseudo continuous neural network PTF (PCNN-PTF) approach and assessed its accuracy and reliability using two independent data sets with hydraulic conductivity measured via the evaporation method. The primary data set contained 150 international soils (6963 measured data pairs), and the second dataset consisted of 79 repacked Turkish soil samples (1340 measured data pairs). Four models with different combinations of the input attributes, including soil texture (sand, silt, clay), bulk density (BD), and organic matter content (SOM), were developed. The best performing international (root mean square error, RMSE = 0.520) and local (RMSE = 0.317) PTFs only had soil texture information as inputs when developed and tested using the same data set to estimate log(K). However, adding BD and SOM as input parameters increased the reliability of the international PCNN-PTFs when the Turkish data set was used as the test data set. We observed an overall improvement in the performance of PTFs with the increasing number of data points per soil textural class. The PCNN-PTFs consistently performed high across tension ranges when developed and tested using the international data set. Incorporating the Turkish data set into PTF development substantially improved the accuracy of the PTFs (on average close to 60% reduction in RMSE). Consequently, we recommend integrating local HYPROPTM (Hydraulic Property Analyzer, Meter Group Inc., USA) data sets into the international data set used in this study and retraining the PCNN-PTFs to enhance their performance for that specific region. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial neural network; soil hydrology; hydraulic conductivity curve; international soils; Turkish soils artificial neural network; soil hydrology; hydraulic conductivity curve; international soils; Turkish soils
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MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, A.; Haghverdi, A.; Öztürk, H.S.; Durner, W. Developing Pseudo Continuous Pedotransfer Functions for International Soils Measured with the Evaporation Method and the HYPROP System: II. The Soil Hydraulic Conductivity Curve. Water 2021, 13, 878. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060878

AMA Style

Singh A, Haghverdi A, Öztürk HS, Durner W. Developing Pseudo Continuous Pedotransfer Functions for International Soils Measured with the Evaporation Method and the HYPROP System: II. The Soil Hydraulic Conductivity Curve. Water. 2021; 13(6):878. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060878

Chicago/Turabian Style

Singh, Amninder; Haghverdi, Amir; Öztürk, Hasan S.; Durner, Wolfgang. 2021. "Developing Pseudo Continuous Pedotransfer Functions for International Soils Measured with the Evaporation Method and the HYPROP System: II. The Soil Hydraulic Conductivity Curve" Water 13, no. 6: 878. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060878

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