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Open AccessArticle

A Stepwise GIS Approach for the Delineation of River Valley Bottom within Drainage Basins Using a Cost Distance Accumulation Analysis

1
Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, 8830 Tjele, Denmark
2
Department of Hydrology, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yongqiang Zhang
Water 2021, 13(6), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060827
Received: 27 February 2021 / Revised: 15 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 18 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
River valley bottoms have hydrological, geomorphological, and ecological importance and are buffers for protecting the river from upland nutrient loading coming from agriculture and other sources. They are relatively flat, low-lying areas of the terrain that are adjacent to the river and bound by increasing slopes at the transition to the uplands. These areas have under natural conditions, a groundwater table close to the soil surface. The objective of this paper is to present a stepwise GIS approach for the delineation of river valley bottom within drainage basins and use it to perform a national delineation. We developed a tool that applies a concept called cost distance accumulation with spatial data inputs consisting a river network and slope derived from a digital elevation model. We then used wetlands adjacent to rivers as a guide finding the river valley bottom boundary from the cost distance accumulation. We present results from our tool for the whole country of Denmark carrying out a validation within three selected areas. The results reveal that the tool visually performs well and delineates both confined and unconfined river valleys within the same drainage basin. We use the most common forms of wetlands (meadow and marsh) in Denmark’s river valleys known as Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems (GDE) to validate our river valley bottom delineated areas. Our delineation picks about half to two-thirds of these GDE. However, we expected this since farmers have reclaimed Denmark’s low-lying areas during the last 200 years before the first map of GDE was created. Our tool can be used as a management tool, since it can delineate an area that has been the focus of management actions to protect waterways from upland nutrient pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: river valley bottom; GIS; cost distance accumulation; groundwater dependent ecosystems river valley bottom; GIS; cost distance accumulation; groundwater dependent ecosystems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sechu, G.L.; Nilsson, B.; Iversen, B.V.; Greve, M.B.; Børgesen, C.D.; Greve, M.H. A Stepwise GIS Approach for the Delineation of River Valley Bottom within Drainage Basins Using a Cost Distance Accumulation Analysis. Water 2021, 13, 827. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060827

AMA Style

Sechu GL, Nilsson B, Iversen BV, Greve MB, Børgesen CD, Greve MH. A Stepwise GIS Approach for the Delineation of River Valley Bottom within Drainage Basins Using a Cost Distance Accumulation Analysis. Water. 2021; 13(6):827. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060827

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sechu, Gasper L.; Nilsson, Bertel; Iversen, Bo V.; Greve, Mette B.; Børgesen, Christen D.; Greve, Mogens H. 2021. "A Stepwise GIS Approach for the Delineation of River Valley Bottom within Drainage Basins Using a Cost Distance Accumulation Analysis" Water 13, no. 6: 827. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060827

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