Minimum Residual Flows for Catchments in the Czech Republic
- exceeds the natural minimum daily flow value ( > )
- represents at least one third of the natural average annual minimum flow
- corresponds to at least half of the natural average annual minimum flow.
- The division of the Czech Republic into several areas where the MRF will be determined in different ways. The areas will take into account the specific hydrological regime, and hydrogeological conditions.
- MRF calculation will take into account the needs of animal species in watercourses.
- Standard hydrological characteristics provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) will be used to calculate the MRF.
- The methodology will determine the methods for calculating the MRF below reservoirs and water works used for water accumulation.
2. Study Area and Data
3.1. Regional Division of the Czech Republic
- —flow that is reached or exceeded on a long-term (1981–2010) average with a probability of 99% (i.e., is reached or exceeded on a long-term (1981–2010) average over 362 days a year) [m s],
- —long-term (1981–2010) average flow [m s].
- Area 1 forms a catchment area of chalk sediments, which represent drainage basins and where the baseflow runoff (i.e. runoff from groundwater reserves) forms a substantial part of total runoff , where ,
- Area 2 consists of mountain catchments with high water content. The balanced nature of the runoff is mainly due to high precipitation. The value is usually greater than 0.15 in these areas,
- Area 3 is represented by river catchments formed mainly by crystalline structures, which are found mainly in the submountain areas. Due to the lower altitude, there is an earlier onset of the spring thaw period. Rainfall is also lower here than, for example, in mountain catchments. The value in these areas usually ranges from 0.1 to 0.15, and
- Area 4 is classified as catchments that are characterised by a significantly unbalanced flow regime during the year, where the values are less than 0.1 .
3.2. Determining the MRF Value
3.3. Seasonal MRF Distribution
- The MRF below reservoirs is determined on the basis of the water management solution to the water reservoir. The reason for this solution was the clear need to ensure the reliability of storage spaces in reservoirs, especially with regard to ongoing climate change ,
- In sections below reservoirs that significantly affect the hydrological regime of the watercourse, the unaffected monthly flows for the reference period 1981–2010 were used for the calculation. Subsequent comparison of affected and unaffected flows showed the possibility of determining empirical values of flows with an exceedance probability 90% and 97%. However, it was not possible to derive a computational relationship or multiple relationships for all or part of the selected affected sections. Each section would need to be assessed individually and would require a careful assessment of the possible impacts on the biological components of the watercourse.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|MRF||Minimum Residual Flow|
|dPR||Difference between precipitation totals and runoff|
|IFIM||Instream Flow Incremental Methodology|
|CHMI||the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute|
|PHABSIM||Physical Habitat Simulation|
|WUA||Weighted Usable Area|
|NCA CR||Nature Conservation Agency of the Czech Republic|
|WFD||Water Framework Directive|
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|Area According to Regional Division|
|Area According to Regional Division||K|
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Balvín, P.; Vizina, A.; Nesládková, M.; Blöcher, J.; Makovcová, M.; Moravec, V.; Hanel, M. Minimum Residual Flows for Catchments in the Czech Republic. Water 2021, 13, 689. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050689
Balvín P, Vizina A, Nesládková M, Blöcher J, Makovcová M, Moravec V, Hanel M. Minimum Residual Flows for Catchments in the Czech Republic. Water. 2021; 13(5):689. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050689Chicago/Turabian Style
Balvín, Pavel, Adam Vizina, Magdalena Nesládková, Johanna Blöcher, Marcela Makovcová, Vojtěch Moravec, and Martin Hanel. 2021. "Minimum Residual Flows for Catchments in the Czech Republic" Water 13, no. 5: 689. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050689