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Modelling Watershed and River Basin Processes in Cold Climate Regions: A Review

1
Faculty of Science and Technology, Athabasca University, 1 University Drive, Athabasca, AB T9S 3A3, Canada
2
Interdisciplinary Centre for Water Research, Indian Institute of Science, CV Raman Rd, Bangalore, Karnataka 560012, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Renato Morbidelli
Water 2021, 13(4), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040518
Received: 21 December 2020 / Revised: 6 February 2021 / Accepted: 12 February 2021 / Published: 17 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Watershed Management Modeling)
Watersheds in cold regions provide water, food, biodiversity and ecosystem service. However, the increasing demand for water resources and climate change challenge our ability to provide clean freshwater. Particularly, watersheds in cold regions are more sensitive to changing climate due to their glaciers’ retreat and permafrost. This review revisits watershed system and processes. We analyze principles of watershed modelling and characteristics of watersheds in cold regions. Then, we show observed evidence of their impacts of cold processes on hydrological and biogeochemical processes and ecosystems, and review the watershed modeling and their applications in cold regions. Finally, we identify the knowledge gaps in modeling river basins according to model structures and representations of processes and point out research priorities in future model development. View Full-Text
Keywords: watershed modeling; cold climate; climate change; modeling of river basins watershed modeling; cold climate; climate change; modeling of river basins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, J.; Kumar Shrestha, N.; Aghajani Delavar, M.; Worku Meshesha, T.; Bhanja, S.N. Modelling Watershed and River Basin Processes in Cold Climate Regions: A Review. Water 2021, 13, 518. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040518

AMA Style

Wang J, Kumar Shrestha N, Aghajani Delavar M, Worku Meshesha T, Bhanja SN. Modelling Watershed and River Basin Processes in Cold Climate Regions: A Review. Water. 2021; 13(4):518. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040518

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Junye; Kumar Shrestha, Narayan; Aghajani Delavar, Mojtaba; Worku Meshesha, Tesfa; Bhanja, Soumendra N. 2021. "Modelling Watershed and River Basin Processes in Cold Climate Regions: A Review" Water 13, no. 4: 518. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040518

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